(1) Light, 11 lb. yarn. - Boil 4 1/2 oz. sumach in 87 pints water; in this steep the yarn for 1 hour, turning frequently; lift, and add to the beck a decoction of 4 1/2 oz. copperas; stir; reenter, give 5 turns, steep for 15 minutes, and give another turn; let steep again, and turn once more; lift, and take through water. Wring out, and dry.

(2) Medium Mode, 11 Lb

Add to 44 qt. water at 100° F. (38° C.) a decoction of 17 1/4 oz. sumach, 8 3/4 oz. logwood, and 4f oz. prepared catechu. Steep for 1 hour. Add 4 3/4 oz. nitrate of iron at 75° Tw.; re-enter, give 10 turns, and enter into fresh water at 100° F. (38° C.) with 2 1/2 oz. chromate of potash.

(3) Light, on 60 lb. cotton pieces. - Boil 1 1/2 lb. solid extract of logwood and 1/2 lb. extract of bark in sufficient water. Run the pieces 6 to 8 times through; press; and take through a fresh beck of 5 lb. copperas; rinse; and calender out of the following mixture: - 45 lb. farina, 3 lb. wax, 6 lb. coco-nut oil, boiled to a stiff paste. Press, and dry.

(4) Fast, 22 Lb

1st operation:" 35 fl. oz. olive oil, and 2 lb. 3 oz. soda crystals. Work in this mixture at a boil for 30 minutes; wring and dry. 2nd operation: Grind 44 lb. coal very fine; add 22 lb. soda crystals, and 17 1/2 pints of water at a boil. Mix the whole very well, and let steep for some hours. Then boil for 1/2 hour in 15 times the quantity of water; strain; and work the cotton in the hot liquid for 1/4 hour, airing well; pass 5 times through the same liquid, and wring each time. Wash first in luke-warm water, then in cold water; wring, and dry. 3rd operation: The dry cotton is passed into weak size, to which a little emulsive oil has been added. Wring, and dry-. This grey resists soap, acids, and chloride of lime.

(5) Stone-Shade, 25 Lb

Boil 25 lb. sumach, and 1 lb. fustic; enter the yarns into the decoction, to which a sufficient quantity of water has been added; give 5 turns; wring; and enter into a cold beck, with a solution of 1 lb. copperas (protosulphate of iron, or ferrous sulphate), and 3/4 lb. blue stone (copper sulphate). Give 5 turns, rinse, and dry.

Olive, 11 Lb

Extract 8 3/4 oz. sumach in boiling water; enter the yarn into the clear liquid; let steep, and make up a fresh beck, with the same weight of copperas. Wring out the yarn and enter into this second beck, working for J hour. Wring, and enter into a fresh beck of red liquor at 1 1/2° Tw. Give 12 hours; heat to 144° F. (62° C); wring out; and work for 1/2 hour in a decoction of quercitron bark.


-(1) Full Lead, 601b

Boil 12 lb. sugar of lead in 12 gal. clear lime-water till dissolved; add this to enough cold water. Work yarn 5 turns, and wring. Repeat this process twice in the cold liquors, wringing after each time. Get a clear lime-water up to the boil, and give the yams 5 turns in it, working very quickly. It is very important that the lime water should be boiling, to keep the yarns level. Wash off in warm water with a little soap, and dry.

This colour, like all others in which lead is an ingredient, will be darkened and spoiled if exposed to fumes of sulphuretted hydrogen.

(2) Annatto, 60 Lb

Boil 6 lb. concentrated annatto with 2 lb. soap, and 2 lb. common soda, till completely dissolved; add this to boiling water. Work the yarns 5 turns; wash in cold water, and dry. This colour may be modified by topping with small quantities of magenta, etc.

(3) Aniline, 60 Lb

Boil 3 lb. tannic acid, and add the solution to warm water. Work the yarns 5 turns and wring. Add 3 qt. nitro-muriate of tin to enough cold water, and mordant in the mixture. Wash well in cold water, with a little soap in the last water. Dissolve 12 oz. aniline orange, and add the solution to warm water. Give 5 turns, wash, and stove-dry.

Purple, 10 Lb

Prepare in stannate of soda at 10° Tw.; pass in dilute sulphuric acid at 2° Tw.; and give 2 washings in clear cold water. Fill up a tub with 30 gal. logwood liquor; give 4 to 5 turns; lift; and add 4 qt. alum solution, and 1/2 pint double muriate of tin; reenter, and give 3 to 4 more turns. Wash off; and prepare another beck with 30 gal. logwood liquor, and 10 gal. peach or sapan-wood liquor; re-enter, and give 3 to 4 turns; add 1/2 pint purple spirit, and 4 qt. alum water. Give 5 to 6 turns; wash and dry.