Before the first coat is applied to wood, all holes should be filled up. The filling usually employed is ordinary putty; this, however, sometimes consists of whiting ground up with oil foots of a non-drying character, and when the films of paint are dry, the oil from the putty exudes to the surface, causing a stain. The best filling for ordinary purposes is whiting ground to a paste with boiled linseed-oil. For finer work, and for filling cracks, redlead mixed with the same vehicle may . be employed. For porous hard woods, use boiled oil and corn starch stirred into a very thick paste; add a little japan, arid reduce With turpentine. Add no colour for light ash; for dark ash and chestnut, use a little raw sienna; for walnut, burnt umber and a slight amount of Venetian red; for bay wood, burnt sienna. In no case use more colour than is required to overcome the white appearance of the starch, Unless you wish to stain the wood. This filler is worked with brush and rags in the usual manner. Let it dry 48 hours, or until it is in condition to rub down with No. 0 sandpaper, without much gumming up; and if an extra fine finish is desired, fill again with the same materials, using less oil, but more japan and turpentine. The second coat will not shrink, being supported by the first.

When the second coat is hard, the wood is ready for finishing up by following the usual methods. This formula is not intended for rosewood.


There is no advantage in laying on the paint too thickly. A thick film takes longer to dry thoroughly than two thin films of the same aggregate thickness. Paint is thinned down or diluted with linseed-oil or turpentine. The latter liquid, when used in excess, causes the paint to dry with a dull surface, and has an injurious effect upon its stability. Sometimes the last coat of paint is mixed with varnish, in order to give it greater brilliancy. In this case, special care must be taken that the previous coats have thoroughly solidified, or cracks in the final coat may subsequently appear. The same remark applies when the surface of the paint is varnished. The turpentine with which the varnish is mixed has a powerful action upon the oil contained m the paint, if the latter is not thoroughly oxidized. The exterior of the paint is thus softened, and the varnish is enabled to shrink and crack, especially in warm weather.


The bristles are frequently fastened by glue or size, which is not perceptibly acted upon by oil, and if brought into contact with this liquid alone, there would be no complaints of loose hairs coming out and spoiling the work. It is a common practice to leave the brushes in a paint-pot, in which the paint is covered with water to keep it from drying. The brushes are certainly kept soft and pliant in this way; but at the same time the glue is softened, and the bristles come out as soon as the brush is used.- After use, brushes should be cleaned, and placed in linseed-oil until again required, when they will be found in good condition. Treated in this way, they will wear so much better that the little additional trouble entailed is amply repaid. When brushes will not again be required for some time, the oil remaining in them should be washed out by means of turpentine, after which they may be dried without deterioration. On no account should oil be allowed to dry in a brush, as it is most difficult to remove after oxidation has taken place.

The best means are steeping in benzoline for a few days, or in turpentine, with occasional washing in soda-water and with soft-soap, avoiding too violent rubbing.


When the surface to be painted is already covered with old paint, this should be either removed or rubbed down smooth before applying the new. When the thickness of the old coat is not great, rubbing down, accompanied by a careful scraping of blisters and defective parts, will suffice. When the thickness of the old paint necessitates its removal, it may either be burnt off, or softened by a solution of caustic alkali, and afterwards scraped. The burning process is the most effective, and leaves the wood in a fit condition to receive the fresh coat of paint; but it is not applicable in the case of fine mouldings. When caustic potash or soda is used, the paint is left in contact with it for some time, when the linoleic acid of the oxidized linseed-oil becomes saponified, and can easily be scraped or scrubbed off the surface of the wood. Whenever an alkali is employed, it is of the greatest importance that the wood 2 should afterwards be thoroughly washed several times with clean water, in order to remove every trace of the solvents. Any soda or potash remaining in the pores of the wood would not only retain moisture and cause blistering, but would also have an injurious action upon the vehicle of the paint subsequently ap-plied, and in many cases upon the pigment itself.

The remarks already made as to the necessity of an absolutely dry surface should be borne in mind in this instance. When the surface of the paint is to be protected by a coat of varnish, the latter should not be applied until the whole of the oil -contained in the paint has solidified. The wrinkling of varnish upon, paint is frequently erroneously attributed to the bad quality of the varnish, when the real cause is the incomplete oxidation of the paint itself.


The manufacture of water-colour paints is more simple than that of oil-paints, the pigments being first ground extremely fine and then mixed with a solution of gum or glue. The paste produced in this manner is allowed to dry, after having been stamped into the form of cakes. As soon as the hardened mass is rubbed down with water, the gum softens and dissolves, and if the proportion of water be not too great, the pigment will remain suspended in the solution of gum, and can be applied in the same manner as oil-paint. To facilitate the mixing with water, glycerine is sometimes added to the cake of paint, which then remains moist and soft.

Removing Smell

(1) Place a vessel of lighted charcoal in the room, and throw on it 2 or 3 handfuls of juniper berries; shut the windows, the chimney, and the door close; 24 hour afterwards the room may be opened, when it will be found that the sickly, unwholesome smell will be entirely gone. (2) Plunge a handful of hay into a pail of water, and let it stand in the room newly painted.