(1) Eosine

These shades range from a cherry-red to a true rose, and have not the violet cast of magenta. For a more bluish shade, steep in a bath of curd soap at 144° F. (62° C); work for 1/2 hour; rinse; and work for the same length of time in subacetate of lead (basic sugar of lead) at 4° Tw. Rinse, and dye in a bath of eosine at 144° F. (62o C). Soft soap must be used throughout the process. If yellower tones are required, alum is added to the sugar of lead beck, more or less according to the shade intended.

Eosine is also sometimes fixed upon cotton by mordanting in red liquor, and then passing through water in which chalk is suspended, when hydrate of alumina is deposited on the fibre.

(2) Rose Bengale

This beautiful colour is fixed upon cotton as follows: Work the yarns for 1 hour in water, to which has been added 5 per cent, of the emulsive oil used for Turkey-red dyeing. Dry; steep for 2 hours in cold red liquor at 3° Tw.; and enter into the colour bath, which should contain 1/2 oz. of the dye, and 3/4 oz. of the red liquor, to every 2 lb. 3 oz. of cotton. Work for 1 hour at 112° to 140° F. (44° to 60° C). The red liquor in question is made by dissolving 3 1/4 oz. alum in 17 1/4 oz. water, and adding 1 7/8 oz. acetate of lime, previously dissolved in the same bulk of water. It is allowed to settle; the clear is drawn off, and set at 3° Tw.

(3) Coralline, 11 lb. yarn. - Make up a hot beck with a decoction of 2 lb. 3 oz. turmeric. Work for 1/4 hour; take out, and rinse in cold water; prepare another beck with 1 3/4 oz. soap, and 3 1/2 oz. olive oil, the heat being 86° F. (30° C); work the yarn in this for 1/4 hour and wring. Then dye in a cold solution of soluble red coralline, to which a trace of acetic acid has been added. The quantity of acid is greater or less, as a more or less yellowish shade is required.

(4) Boil in water 4 1/4oz. white starch, and 4 1/4 oz. white glue. Enter the cotton in this at 86° F. (30° C.); work for 1/4 hour; rinse, and dye in a coralline beck at 86° F. (30° C), as already described.

(5) Coralline And Amine, 11 Lb

Amine dyes shades more inclining to orange than coralline. Boil 2 lb. 3 oz. sumach, or 6 1/6 oz. tannin, in water, and soak the tannin all night in the clear hot liquid. Wring out next morning, and enter into a fresh beck of 17 1/4 oz. good glue at 122° F. (50° C). Wring out, and dye to shade in a cold solution of coralline. Wring again, and dry, without rinsing, in a room where the air is impregnated with ammonia. The cotton, if desired, may be grounded with turmeric and annatto, and merely topped with aurine.

(6) Galleine

Galleine dyes deep and very solid reds. The yarns are mordanted in chrome alum, or by alternate passages through chromate of potash and bisulphite of soda. The requisite quantity of galleine is then placed in a bag, and suspended in a beck of cold water; the yarn is entered, and the heat is gradually raised to 212° F. (100° C). The goods are then taken out, and the colour is developed by hot soaping.

(7) Colours derived from resorcine, such as the eosines, phloxine, etc, may be fixed in the following manner: -

The yarns are soaped hot with curd-soap for 1 hour, and wrung without rinsing. A solution is then made of 8f oz. alum in 35 fl. oz. water, and diluted to 17 1/2 pints; 1 3/4 oz. soda crystals are then added; the whole is allowed to settle, and the clear is drawn off. The cotton is steeped in this liquid, and kept at a boil for 10 to 12 hours; it is then passed into a bath containing 17 1/2 pints water, and 6f to 10 1/4 ox. emulsive oil, such as is used in Turkey-red dyeing. Before the oil is added to the bath, it should be very well shaken up with 35 fl. oz. water. The cotton is steeped in this liquid for 1 hour; then wrung, and dried. The dye-beck is then made up as follows: - 17 1/2 pints pure water, such as condensed-steam water, 7 fl. oz. red liquor at 7° Tw.; and the needful amount of colour. The dyeing is begun at 122° F. (50° C), and the beck is gradually raised to 190° F. (88° C). The goods are allowed to steep till the bath is exhausted; then wrung without rinsing, and dried. The red liquor is prepared by dissolving 4 1/4 oz. alum in 8 3/4 fl. oz. boiling water, and adding a solution of 3 3/8 oz. sugar of lead in an equal bulk of water.

The two solutions are mixed, allowed to settle, and strained; the clear liquid is set at 7° Tw.

(8) Scarlet On Cotton, 100 Lb

Steep overnight in a decoction of 40 lb. sumach. Lift, and wring; enter in a bath of oxy-muriate of antimony at 3° Tw. Give 3 turns quickly; steep for 3/4 hour, turning occasionally. Lift, wash well, wring, and enter into a colour-beck made up with 10 oz. "extra scarlet " (of Sehlbach & Co.), and dye to shade at 110° F. (43° C).

(9) Saffranine Scarlet, 60 lb. yarn. - Boil 10 lb. sumach; enter yarns; give 6 turns; let soak for 1 hour, and wring, enter into a fresh cold beck of nitro-muriate of tin at 2° Tw., give 6 turns, wash, first in warm, and then in cold water; wring well, and enter into a beck of 10 lb. turmeric. Finally, make up a beck with 1/2 lb. saffranine; enter yarns at 50° F. (10° C), and raise the temperature to 120° F. (49° C), turning continually. Wring, and dry.

(10) Pink, 50 lb. yarn. - Dissolve 5 lb. Glauber salts, and 4 1/2 oz. " erysine " (of the Berlin Aktien Gesellschaft). Enter yarn at 120° F. (54° C.); give 5 turns quickly, and dye to shade, gradually raising the temperature to 140° F. (60° C.) To ensure even shades, it is better to add only half the erysine at first; and the rest, previously dissolved, by degrees.

(11) Magenta Ponceau, 10 Lb

Boil 2 lb. turmeric, strain, and steep the cotton in the liquid for 4 to 5 hours. Wring, and take through cold sours, containing about 10 oz. muriatic acid; rinse well, and handle for 10 minute& in lukewarm water, containing 10 oz. starch, which has been boiled up to a paste with 1 oz. glue. Lastly, dye to shade in a fresh magenta beck. Magenta ponceaus and scarlets, even if the yellowest shades of the dye are taken, are never so satisfactory as those got up with eosine, saffranine, and other coal-tar colours, free from the violet tone of magenta.

(12) Alizarine Red

Mordant in cold red liquor at 7° Tw. for 2 hours with frequent turning. Lift, wring, and air for 24 hours. Enter into a fresh beck, and dye at 212° F. (100° C.) with a solution of artificial alizarine.

(13) Cochineal Scarlet, 10 Lb

Boil 1 lb. annatto in a solution of 10 oz. potash for 20 minutes; cool a little; enter the cotton, work for 1 hour, lift, wring, and wash. Enter for 1/2 hour in a beck of permuriate of tin, marking 8° Tw., to which 2 oz. of tin crystals have been further added; lift, wring, and dye in a decoction of 1 1/4 lb. cochineal, beginning at a hand-heat, and gradually raising the temperature.

(14) Saffranine Rose, 11 Lb

Mordant with a decoction of 2 lb. 3 oz. sumach, or a corresponding smaller quantity of pure tannin, which is preferable. Dye in a clear solution of saffranine. If a shade verging towards a bluish-red is required, add to the sumach beck, before mordanting, 1 3/4 to 2 1/4oz. tin crystals. Saffranine may also be fixed on cotton by means of red liquor, or soap.

(15) Safflower Pink, (50 lb. bleached yarn. - Add 1 1/2 pint carthamine (extract of safflower) to the needful quantity of water. Work the yarns for 5 hours, giving a turn every 1/2 hour, and keep them in the liquid till all the colour is taken up. Wash off in 3 cold waters, adding 1 lb. cream of tartar to the last. Then dry, preferably by means of a current of cold air in the dark.

(16) Safflower Rose, 60 Lb

Work as above, but use double the quantity of carthamine, and take a longer time.

(17) Common Scarlet, 60 Lb

Boil 6 lb. sumach, and add decoction to hot water. Work yarns 5 turns, and wring; mordant in a tin solution (red cotton spirits). Wash in two waters, and wring up. Boil 18 lb. peachwood, and 18 lb. fustic, ground, and add the decoction to hot water. Work the yarns 10 turns, and raise with 1 lb. alum. Wash in cold water, and stove. For lighter shades, the sumach may be dispensed with, and turmeric may be used in place of fustic.

(18) Barwood Red, 10 Lb

Steep for 5 to 6 hours in a decoction of 2 lb. sumach, to which a very little sulphuric acid has been added, turning from time to time. Wring out, and work in bar-wood spirits at 2° Tw. Wring, and enter into a beck of water at 200° F. (93° C.) containing 10 lb. rasped bar-wood; and work to shade at a bpil.

(19) Turkey-Red, With Artificial Alizarine

The pieces are twice treated with 15 oz. soda-ash a piece, each time for 18 hours; wring. Pad in oil at 160° F. (71° C); hang up for 4 hours at 169° F. (76° C). In padding, the lower roller should be dressed, and the upper not. Pad 5 times in the same oil bath, with both rollers dressed. After each padding, hang up at 169° F. (76° C). Pad in potash lye at 6° Tw. at 90° F. (32° C). Pad in potash at 8° Tw., same heat. Pad in potash at 5 Tw., same heat. Pad in potash at 3° Tw., same heat. After each padding, hang up at l60°F.(71°C). Pass through potash at 4° Tw., heated to 107° F. (42° C). Extract the liquor, and take care that the pieces do not touch cold water.

Hang up for 4 hours at 160° F. (71° C). Pass into the following beck at 122° F-(50° C.): - 2625 pints water, 17 1/4 oz. potash. Wash, and dry. Formerly, when the subsequent dyeing was performed with madder-root, there followed here the "galling" process - a treatment with tannin, which is no longer required, since artificial alizarine has come into use. The pieces are passed at once to the alum-bath, which is thus made up: - To 110 lb. crystallized alum, take 33 lb. soda crystals, and mix the solutions in water, stirring diligently'. The clear liquid is finally set at 6 1/2° to 7° Tw. The cotton is mordanted in this liquid for a day, and is then carefully washed, and wrung oat, and is now ready for the dye-beck. To 110 lb. cotton are taken about 14 lb. 6 oz. alizarine (at 10 per cent.), and 17 1/4 oz. pure tanniu. Raise very slowly to a boil during 2 hours, and keep up the boiling heat for another hour. The " cleaning process " (avivage), a treatment with soap and tin crystals, is not required, when working with good artificial alizarine. The cotton is at once bloomed with curd-soap, and a little annatto. It is to be remarked that if the water contains no lime, 3 1/2 oz. of chalk should be added to the dye-beck for the above quantity of cotton.

The oiling process is considerably simplified and abridged, by replacing the ordinary emulsive oil with the compound invented by Dr. Muller-Jacobs - a mixture of sulpho-ricinic and sulpho-pyroterebic acids in combination with ammonia. A single passage through this mordant supersedes the 5 successive oilings formerly employed. A small quantity of the compound is recommended to be added to the dye-beck.