(1) Resin, 6 oz.; shellac, 2 oz.; Venice turpentine, 2 oz.; melt and add lampblack, 9 oz. Pour into moulds. (2) Common resin, pitch, and ivory black, equal parts. (3) Another: common resin, 20 lb.; tallow, 5 lb.; lamp-black,

4 lb.; mix with heat. (4) Red: common resin, 20 lb.; tallow, 5 lb.; red lead, 6 lb.; mixed with heat. (5) 4 oz. shellac, 1 oz. Venetian turpentine, and 3 oz. vermilion. Melt the lac in a copper pan, suspended over a clear charcoal fire, then pour the turpentine slowly into it, and soon afterwards add the vermilion, stirring briskly all the time of the mixture with a rod in either hand.


7 parts shellac, 6 turpentine, 4 pine resin, 2 gypsum, 2 chalk, 2 umber. The shellac for preparing chocolate-brown sealing-wax must not be too dark. The product of the above recipe is dark-brown, and unbleached shellac and dark resin may be used for preparing it.


Large seals for deeds and public documents are not imprinted in ordinary sealing-wax, but a mass which is half soft, even at normal temperatures, is used for the purpose, and to protect the seal from injury, it is enclosed in a special case fastened to the document by cords or ribbons.

(1) 6 parts light-coloured rosin, 3 1/2 turpentine, 3 clarified tallow, 4 whiting, 3 to 4 minium. (2) 5 parts white wax, 1 1/2 turpentine, 1 cinnabar, 1/2 glycerine. The ingredients are melted together and stirred while cooling off until they congeal.

(3) 3 parts colophony, 1 1/2 tallow, 3 turpentine, 4 chalk, 4 minium. This mixture is of firm consistency at ordinary temperatures, but if a piece of it is held in the hand for some time, it becomes so soft that impressions can be taken with it, and it adheres also with some tenacity to paper, wood, and glass.


(1) 7 parts shellac, 8 turpentine, 4 pine resin, 1 1/2 magnesia, 2 1/2 Berlin blue, 2 1/2 chrome yellow. (3) 5 parts shellac, 4 turpentine, 8 resin, 1 1/2 gypsum, 2 chalk, 3 mountain blue, and 3 ochre. Green ultramarine may be used to advantage for the finer qualities, instead of a mixture of colours. Letter, without a light. - 3 parts colophony, 3 resin, 3 suet, 4 Venice turpentine, 4 pulverized carbonate of lime, 4 pulverized minium. Melt the 3 first ingredients together, then add the others in succession, stirring constantly till cold. - (Moniteur Quesneviile.)


(1) 3 1/2 parts shellac, 6 1/2 rosin, 5 turpentine, 1/2 oil of turpentine, 2 1/2 chalk, 1 gypsum, 2 1/2 cinnabar.

(2) 2 parts shellac, 8 rosin, 5 turpentine, 1/2 oil of turpentine, 3 chalk, 5 1/2 gypsum, 6 minium.

(3) 1 1/2 parts shellac, 8 1/2 resin, 6 turpentine, 1/2 oil of turpentine, 2 chalk, 1 brickdust, 5 colcothar.

(4) 20 parts colophony, 10 pine resin, 5 turpentine, 7 1/2 chalk, 1/8 oil of turpentine.

(5) For brown, 10 parts umber or bole are added to (4).


The beauty and price of red sealing-wax are determined by the quantities of shellac and cinnabar contained in it; only the finest qualities have cinnabar exclusively as a colouring principle. The inferior kinds contain very little shellac, but much common rosin, and no cinnabar at all, minium, colcothar, bole, or other cheap pigments being substituted. But too much resin must not be added, or the wax will become too thin, drop too easily, and smoke very much when lighted. It is asserted that chalk should not be used, because the acids of the shellac expel carbonic acid from it, and form a combination with the lime; but this happens only when the shellac is heated more than necessary, as no carbonic acid is set free if the shellac is only heated to the melting-point.

Very fine reds are - (1) 12 parts shellac, 8 turpentine, 9 cinnabar, 2 oil of turpentine, 3 magnesia.

(2) 11 parts shellac, 6 turpentine, 1 oil of turpentine, 1 chalk, 2 magnesia, , 8 cinnabar.

(3) 10 parts shellac, 1 turpentine, 1/2 oil of turpentine, 1 1/2 chalk, 1 1/2 gypsum, 1/5 magnesia, 6 1/2 cinnabar.

(4) 50 parts shellac, 12 1/2 Venice turpentine, 37 1/2 Chinese vermilion.

Medium Fine Reds

(1) 1 part shellac, 8 turpentine, & oil of turpentine, 3 chalk, 1 magnesia, 6 cinnabar.

(2) 6 parts shellac, 4 resin, 1/2 oil of turpentine, 7 turpentine, 1 1/2 chalk, l 1/2 gypsum, 4 1/2 cinnabar.

(3) 4 parts shellac, 6 resin, 6 turpentine, 1/2 oil of turpentine, 2 chalk, 1 gypsum, 4 cinnabar.

Fine Red

55 parts shellac, 74 turpentine, 30 chalk or magnesia, 20 gypsum or zinc white, 13 cinnabar.

Ordinary Red

(1) 52 shellac, 60 turpentine, 44 pine resin, 18 chalk, 18 cinnabar. (2) 50 rosin, 37 1/2 red lead, 12 1/3 turpentine.


Translucent sealing-wax belongs to the very best qualities, as only highly refined materials can be used for it. Bleached shellac alone is not sufficient; sealing-wax only becomes translucent by adding a corresponding quantity of mastic, and by using very fine, light-coloured, and very viscid turpentine. Following are 3 recipes for preparing translucent sealing-wax, which may be coloured by mixing suitable pigments with it. A beautiful variety ("aventurin"), which can be prepared at comparatively low cost, is obtained by stirring finely powdered mica into the melted ground mass. Gold and silver waxes are obtained by mixing finely powdered leaf-metal with the melted ground mass. Ground masses for translucent wax are: - (1) 1 1/2 parts bleached shellac, 1 1/2 viscid turpentine, 3 mastic, 1 chalk.

(2) 3 parts bleached shellac, 4 viscid turpentine, 5 mastic, 3 sulphate of baryta (or 3 nitrate of bismuth).

(3) 3 parts bleached shellac, .4 viscid turpentine, 5 mastic, 3 sulphate of baryta (or 3 nitrate of bismuth). No. (3) is especially adapted for preparing "enamelled " sealing-wax, which actually possesses the half transparent appearance of enamel, and is particularly beautiful when a tender rose-colour is given to it by using fiery madder-lake.


Only lead colours can be used for yellow sealing-wax, and of these chrome yellow produces the most beautiful colour. But if sealing-wax compounded with chrome yellow is very strongly heated in lighting it, the mass becomes discoloured, in consequence of a decomposition of the lead colours. Therefore yellow sealing-wax must be very fusible to avoid this evil. Every kind of sealing-wax becomes more fusible by adding a larger quantity of turpentine, but it also becomes softer. Fine yellow: 76 parts shellac, 85 turpentine, 45 pine resin, 15 gypsum, 15 chalk, 45 ochre. The shellac used for fine qualities of yellow sealing-wax must be bleached, or it will be impossible to produce a pure tone of colour. All gradations of yellow, from orange to red, can be produced by adding cinnabar or chrome-red to fine qualities, and minium to inferior qualities of sealing-wax. - (Brannt.)