(2) Dark

6 lb. starch gum, 9 lb. satin gum, 2 pints olive oil, 16 1/2 qt. red liquor at 17° Tw., 6 pints acetic acid at 7° Tw., 4 gal. catechu liquor, 4 lb. sal ammoniac, 4 qt. sapan liquor at 8° Tw., 4 qt. logwood liquor at 10° Tw., 1 qt. acetate of copper, 1 qt. nitrate of copper at 86° Tw. Boil well, and strain.

(3) Bimas

336 oz. extract of bimas at 5 1/2° Tw., 56 oz. acetic acid at 11 1/4° Tw., 56 oz. cubic catechu, 14 oz. sal ammoniac, 10 oz, verdigris. Thicken with 200 oz. gum arabic.

(4) Berry

1 1/2 gal. berry liquor at 20° Tw., 1 1/2 gal. Brazil wood liquor at 8° Tw., 3 lb. alum, 3/4 gal. lavender liquor, 1 1/2 gal. gum Senegal water at 6 lb. to the gal., 1 1/2 lb. nitrate of copper at 100° Tw.

(5) Standard

3 1/2 gal. bark liquor 12° Tw., 3 1/2 qt. sapan liquor 12° Tw., 1 1/2 qt. logwood liquor 12° Tw., 3 gal. gum substitute water 8 lb. to the gal., 3 1/2 lb. alum, 2 oz. chloride of potash, 5 oz. red prussiate. Light browns are obtained by letting this standard down with gum water.

(6) 3 gal. bark liquor 12° Tw., 3 gal. berry liquor 12° Tw., 2 gal. logwood liquor 12°Tw., 2 gal. sapan liquor 10° Tw., 48 lb. British gum. Boil, and add 3 lb. alum, 2 lb. sal ammoniac, 2 lb. sulphate of copper (blue-stone), 2 pints nitrate of copper 8° Tw., 3 gal. lilac standard. To prepare the lilac standard, take 4 lb. gum Senegal, 8 oz. red prussiate of potash, 12 oz. alum, 1 oz. oxalic acid, 2 oz. binoxalate of potash (suit of sorrei). Dissolve in 1 gal. logwood liquor 20° Tw., previously heated to 173° F. (79° C).

(7) 1 gal. berry liquor 3°Tw., 1/4 pint logwood liquor 8° Tw., 1/2 gal. peach-wood liquor 8° Tw., 24 oz. solid nitrate of copper, 24 oz. alum. Thicken according to shade with gum Senegal water.

Buff

1 gal. bark liquor 10° Tw., 3 gal. madder liquor, 1/2 gal. red liquor 14° Tw., 7 lb. starch. Boil, and add 2 oz. crystals of tin.

Chocolates: (1) Cylinder Work

2 gal. sapan liquor 12°Tw., 3 gal. logwood liquor 12° Tw., 1/2 gal. bark liquor 12° Tw., 1 gal. nitrate of alumina, 4 gal. water, 17 lb. starch. Boil, and add 2 1/2 lb. red prussiate of potash, 8 oz. chloride of potash. To prepare the nitrate of alumina, take 4 gal. boiling water, 12 lb. crystal nitrate of lead, 12 lb. alum, 2 1/2 lb. carbonate of soda crystals. Stir till perfectly dissolved, let settle, and decant the clear.

(2) Alizarine

2 lb. Alizarine paste 15 per cent. 2 1/2 gal. thickening, 1 lb. nitrate of alumina 26 3/4° Tw., 4/5 lb. acetate of alumiqa 18 3/4° Tw., 4/5 lb. red prussiate of potash in hot water, 1 lb. acetate of lime 26 3/4° Tw. In order to obtain a yellowish chocolate, add, for each quart, 1 oz. extract of bark at 30 1/2° Tw. This chocolate may also be prepared from stale red colours by adding to them, for each quart, 4/5 to 1 oz. red prussiate of potash dissolved in hot water.

(3) Chromium

Take 70 fl. oz. Per-nod's extract of madder in paste, 70 fl. oz. acetic acid at 9 1/2° Tw., and 105 fl. oz. acetate of chromium at 25 1/4° Tw. Mix well, print, and steam. In place of Pernod's extract, a proportionally smaller quantity of alizarine may be used.

(4) 12 qt. sapan liquor at 2° Tw., 3 qt. nitrate of alumina, 6 qt. logwood liquor at 12° Tw., 6 oz. yellow prussiate, 6 oz. red prussiate, 9 lb. chlorate of potash.

Cinnamon

1 qt. cochineal liquor at 8° Tw., 1 qt. logwood liquor at 8° Tw., 1 qt. berry liquor at 10° Tw., 6 oz. alum, 4 oz. cream of tartar, 1/2 lb. starch. Boil, and while still warm, add 3 oz. tin crystals.

Drab

(1) 2 gal. lavender liquor, 2 gal. blue standard. 2 qt. bark liquor 8° Tw., 20 to 35 gal. gum water. To make the blue standard, take 2 gal. water, 4 lb. yellow prussiate, 3/4 lb. alum, 1 1/2 lb. sulphuric acid 170° Tw.

(2) Dark

4 qt. berry liquor at 12° Tw., 7 lb. gum substitute. Boil, cool, and add 24 oz. alum, 16 oz. copperas, 1 qt. logwood liquor at 2° Tw., 1 qt. cochineal liquor at 3° Tw.

Greens: (1) 7 pints berry liquor at 11 1/4° Tw., 1 3/4 pint red liquor at 11 1/4° Tw., 7 pints blue mixture. When cold, add 8 3/4oz. solution of chloride of tin at 113 1/2° Tw., 20 oz. white starch. Steam twice for 20 minutes each time; wash, dry, and finish with 350 pints cold water, 88 lb. white starch, and 4 lb. 6 oz. stearine. To make the blue mixture, dissolve 22 lb. yellow prussiate, 3 1/4 lb. tartaric acid, and 3} lb. oxalic acid in 87 1/2 pints boiling water.

(2) Caeruleine

17 1/2 qt. gum water, 7 qt. caeruleine, 1 3/4 pint bisulphite of soda. To be added on using, 3 1/2 pints acetate of chrome at 26 3/4 ° Tw.

(3) Bark

2 1/4 lb. starch, 1 1/2 gal. bark liquor at 16° Tw. Boil, and add 9 oz. alum, 1 1/2 oz. oxalic acid, 8 oz. tin crystals. When half cold, add 1 lb. 14 oz. tartaric acid, 3 lb. 6 oz. yellow prussiate, 1 1/2 pint tin pulp, 3/8 pint olive oil. After steaming, pass through chrome liquor at 41/2° Tw. Wash in clear water, and dry.

(4) Aloes

Chrysammide (the product of chrysammic acid on treatment with ammonia), thickened according to shade with gum water. After steaming, this colour comes up a rich moss green, which is not affected by boiling water, nor by the madder baths, and is capable consequently of a variety of useful applications. Thus an aloes green ground may be obtained; iron and alum mordants may be printed oh, and the piece may be dyed with alizarine, giving red, purple, chocolate, and black figures on a green ground.

(5) For Blotch Grounds

4 gal. bark liquor at 10° Tw. boiled up with 6 lb. starch. Add 2 1/2 lb. alum, 3 lb. tartaric acid, 6 lb. yellow prussiate of potash, 12 oz. oxalic acid, and 1/4 gal. tin pulp. After printing, take through a weak bath of bichromate of potash, to raise the colour.

(6) For Block Work

14 lb. yellow prussiate, dissolved in 3 gal. very hot water. Mix meantime, in another vessel, 1 gal. water, 1/2 gal. double muriate of tin at 120° Tw., and 5 gal. gum Senegal water at 6 lb. per gal. Now mix these two liquids by pouring them repeatedly backwards and forwards, and stirring thoroughly. When perfectly mixed, add 6 gal. berry liquor at 10° Tw., 5 lb. tartaric acid, 1 1/4 lb. oxalic acid, previously dissolved in 2 1/2 gal. water, 11/2 qt. acetic acid, 9/16 pint extract of indigo.

Greys: (1) Aniline For Calico

Dissolve 21 5/8 oz. chlorate of potash in 6 pints boiling water. When cold, add 11 3/4 pints gum water, 10 7/8 oz. sal ammoniac, 3 1/4 lb. chromo-tartrate of potash at 49° Tw., 6 7/8 oz. aniline, and 2 lb. 8 1/2 oz. tartaric acid. Print on, age for 48 hoars at 89° F. (32° C), and wash for 1 hour. Lighter shades are produced by increasing the gum. This grey gives a fine ground, and can be submitted to all the operations necessary for alizarine reds, except passing through a salt of tin. To prepare the chromo-tartrate of potash, 33 1/8 oz. bichrome are dissolved in 5 1/2 pints boiling water. When it has cooled down to 110° F. (43° C.) add gradually 3 lb. 2 1/8 oz. tartaric acid in fine powder, avoiding a rise of the temperature.

(2) Uranium Madder

Add together 70 fl. oz. extract of madder in paste, 70 fl. oz. acetic acid at 9 1/2° Tw., and 105 fl. oz. acetate of uranium at 14° Tw.

Lavender

4 gal. lavender liquid, 4 gal. blue standard, 24 to 48 gal. gum water. The lavender liquid is prepared by mixing 2 gal. red liquor at 18° Tw. with 6 lb. ground logwood. Steep for 48 hours, and strain off the clear. A stronger quality is made from 10 lb. logwood with the same quantity of red liquor. For blue standard, take 1 gal. water, 3/4 lb. oxalic acid, 41/2 oz. yellow prussiate, 28 oz. gum substitute.

Lilac

6 gal. pink standard, 2 gal. purple standard, 20 lb. gum substitute. For pink standard, mix 4 gal. cochineal liquor at 6° Tw., 2 lb. alum, 2 lb. cream of tartar, 1/2 lb. oxalic acid. For purple standard, 2 gal. logwood liquor at 12° Tw., 12 oz. alum, 8 oz. red prussiate, and 4 oz. oxalic acid.

Orange

Mix 9 lb. 13 oz. saturn red (Baden Aniline and Soda Co.), 7 fl. oz. glycerine-arsenic, 44 fl. oz. water, 10 1/2 pints blood-albumen thickening, 3 1/2 pints gum water. The gum water is made by dissolving 21 3/4 oz. gum Senegal in 1 3/4 pints water. For the glycerine-arsenic, dissolve 2 lb. 8f oz. arsenious acid in 17 1/2 pints glycerine at 36° Tw., and concentrate to 100° Tw. To make the blood-albumen thickening, dissolve 13 lb. 2 oz. blood-albumen at a gentle heat in 16 pints water, 7 fl. oz. caustic ammonia at 10 per cent., and 8 1/2 fl. oz. oil of turpentine. Print, dry, steam, and wash.

Pinks: (1) Sapan-Wood

1 gal. sapan liquor at 3° Tw., 1 lb. pink salt, 1/2 lb. sal ammoniac, 1 oz. oxalic acid, 1 oz. blue-stone, 1 gal. thick gum water.

(2) Standard (Cochineal)

4 gal. cochineal liquor at 6° Tw., 2 lb. alum, 2 lb. bitartrate of potash (cream of tartar), 1/2 lb. oxalic acid, 4 gal. thick gum Senegal water.

(3) Mixed

5 gal. sapan liquor at 8° Tw., 1 gal. cochineal liquor at 8° Tw., 1/2 lb. nitrate of alumina, 3 lb. alum, 2 oz. oxalic acid, 8 oz. chlorate of potash. When these ingredients are perfectly mixed up, add 12 gal. gum water.

(4) Cochineal

I gal. cochineal liquor, 8° Tw., 20 oz. starch. Boil a little, and add 3 oz. oxalic acid. Dissolve, strain, print, steam for 40 minutes at 3 lb. pressure; let lie for a night, and run through very weak alum-water.

Purples: (1) Alizarine

1 4/5 lb. alizarine paste, 15 per cent., 2 1/2 gal. thickening for purple, 3/5 lb. pyrolignite of iron, 17° Tw., 3/4 lb. acetate of lime, 23 1/2° Tw. After printing, the pieces are steamed for 1 to 2 hours at a pressure, of 1/2 atmos., and then aged for 24 to 36 hours. The steam should be very moist. The pieces are gathered on rollers, and rinsed for 1 to 1 1/2 hour through the following baths, heated to 122° to 140° F. (50° to 60° C.):- 250 gal. water, 40 lb. chalk, 10 lb. arseniate of soda. Wash, soap for 1/2 hour in a bath containing 3 lb. soap to 10 pieces of 50 yd. each, heated to 140° to 160° F. (60° to 71° C). Wash; dry; if needful, give another light soaping. The best results are obtained by steam ing perfectly dry pieces with wet steam. The thickening for purples, above mentioned, consists of 12 lb. wheat starch, 4 1/2 gal. water, 2 1/4 gal. tragacanth muci lage, 3 qt. acetic acid, 11.2° Tw., 2 lb. olive oil.

It is to be remarked that alizarine shades, when obtained by dyeing upon mordants previously printed upon the fibre, are more beautiful, more transparent, faster, and more economical than when fixed by steaming. Hence alizarine colours ought not to be applied by steaming, except when it is absolutely necessary, i.e. when blues, greens, yellows, oranges, catechu browns, greys, mauves, etc, have to be associated with alizarine reds and purples.

(2) Logwood

1 1/2 gal. logwood liquor at 16° Tw., 11/2 gal. red liquor at 20° Tw., 1 oz. carbonate of soda, 5 oz. crystal soda, 5 oz. red prussiate, 3/4 lb. oxalic acid, 10 lb. gum Senegal. Boil, cool, and strain.