These terms, as generally used, cover such a wide ground, that no accurate definition can be given. The subject may be conveniently divided into the following sections.

Brass Lacquers

(1) Seed - lac, dragon's blood, annatto, and gamboge, each 4 oz.; saffron, 1 oz.; wine spirit, 10 pints. (2) Turmeric, 1 lb.; annatto, 2 oz.; shellac and gum juniper, each 12 oz.; wine spirit, 12 oz. (3) Seed - lac, 6 oz.; dragon's blood, 40 gr,; amber and copal triturated in a mortar, 2 oz.; extract of red sanders, 1/2dr.; oriental saffron, 36 gr.; coarsely powdered glass, 4 oz.; absolute alcohol, 40 oz. (very fine). (4) Seed - lac, 3 oz.; amber and gamboge, each 2 oz.; extract of red sanders, 1/2 dr.; dragon's blood, 1 dr.; saffron, 1/2 dr.; wine spirit, 2 pints. (5) Turmeric, 6 dr.; saffron, 15 gr.; hot alcohol, 1 pint. Draw the tincture and add - gamboge,6dr.; gum sandarach and gum elemi, each 2 oz.; dragon's blood and seed - lac, each 1 oz. (6) Alcohol, 1 piut; turmeric, 1 oz.; annatto and saffron, 2 dr. each. Agitate frequently for a week, filter into a clean bottle, and add seed - lac, 3 oz. Let stand, with occasional agitation, for about 2 weeks. (7) Gamboge, 1/2 oz.; aloes, 1 1/2 oz.; shellac (fine), 8 oz.; wine spirit, 1 gal. (8) Put 3 oz. seed - lac, 2 dr. dragon's blood, and 1 oz. turmeric powder into 1 pint well - rectified spirits. Let the whole remain for 14 days; but during that time agitate the bottle once a day at least.

When properly combined, strain the liquid through muslin, when it is ready for use. (9) To 5 oz. spirits of wine add gamboge enough to give a bright yellow colour, and 3 oz. seed - lac in fine powder. Put in sand - bath till dissolved. (10) Ground turmeric, as sold, 1 oz.; saffron and Spanish annatto, each 2 dr.; highly rectified spirits of wine, 1 pint. Place them in a moderate heat, shaking occasionally, for several days; then add 3 oz. good seed - lac, roughly powdered; shake occasionally till the lac is dissolved. If a deep orange lacquer is required, increase the quantity of annatto; if a bright yellow, decrease it. Lay it on with a brush (warm), like you would paint. One or more coats, if necessary. Avoid using too much seed - lac, as it has a tendency to prevent the lacquer lying evenly. (11) Pale gold lacquer is beat for microscope; be sure and get the best (24s. per gal.), and see that the things are sufficiently hot before putting on the lacquer; heat after lacquering, and it will stand well. Damp will affect the best lacquering. (12) Is the best for optical work; if it comes off, either the metal was not clean when applied, or else it was put on cold. The metal should be heated to just such a point that it dries as fast as the brush passes over it.

Work is often spoiled in lacquering. Circular things may be done in the lathe, going quite slow, and working a good body by going over several times.

(13) In preparing brass for the colourless or nearly colourless lacquer, the goods, after being annealed, pickled, scoured, and washed, are either dipped for an instant in pure commercial nitric acid, washed in clear water, and dried in sawdust, or immersed in a mixture of 1 part of nitric acid with 4 of water, till a white curd covers the surface, at which moment the goods are withdrawn, washed in clear water, and dried in sawdust. In the first case, the brass will be bright; in the latter, a dead flat, which is usually relieved by burnishing the prominent parts. Then the goods are dipped for an instant in commercial nitric acid, and well washed in water containing argol, to preserve the colour till lacquered, and dried in warm sawdust. So prepared, the goods are heated on a plate and varnished. The varnish used is one of spirit, consisting, in its simple form, of 1 oz. shellac dissolved in 1 pint alcohol. To this simple varnish are added such colouring substances as red sanders, dragon's blood, and annatto, for imparting richness of colour. To lower the tone of colour, turmeric, gamboge, saffron, Cape aloes, and sandarach are used.

The first group reddens, the second yellows the varnish; while a mixture of the two gives a pleasing orange, and various tints can be got by suitable mixtures.

(14) Small circular work, after being well scoured, and burnished (if necessary), is best lacquered in the lathe. The work should be slightly warmed over a clear charcoal fire, or in a stove, and the lacquer applied very thinly with a soft camel - hair brush. A charcoal brazier should be held under the work for a few seconds, after the application of the lacquer, to prevent chilling. To lacquer a flat surface, clean carefully by boiling in American potash and water. Dip in hydrochloric acid, if it be desirable to heighten the colour of the brass; wash well, first in cold water, then in hot (removing any black muddi - ness with a fine brush), and dry in hot sawdust. When dry, burnish if required. Place upon a flat iron plate, just lukewarm. Pass the lacquer quickly but evenly over the surface, by means of a rather large but fine camels' - hair brush. Be careful not to pass twice over the same spot, or a ridge is almost sure to appear. Warm the lower plate until the work is quite dry.

Bronze Lacquers

(1) To make a bronze lacquer, dissolve f lb. shellac and 1/2 lb. sandarach in 3 qt. alcohol, and add enough extract of dragon's blood and turmeric to produce the desired colour. (2) For ornaments bronzed with gold - coloured bronze, paint the articles, of cast iron, with white paint, which is white lead and oil; when hard dry, varnish with copal varnish; when sticky dry, dust the bronze powder over it; and when hard dry, brush off all the superfluous bronze with a camel's - hair brush. To protect it from the dust and from soiling, coat the bronze surface, when dry, with spirit copal varnish.

Brunswick Black

(1) Many recipes for making this varnish do not mention the secret, viz., to boil the asphaltum until all the moisture is driven off. Take 7 lb. pitch and 7 lb. asphaltum, boil in an iron pot for 7 to 10 hours with frequent stirring. When all moisture is out, add 2 gal. boiled oil, previously heated, then add 2 1/2 lb. red lead and 2} lb. litharge, and boil for 3 hours, or until some of it will set hard. Then let it cool down, and add 5 gal. turpentine, or as much as will reduce it to the consistence best suited for your work. This varnish should dry in 20 minutes to 1 hour, according to the state of the atmosphere. You can try leaving out the red - lead but, add the extra in asphaltum, and also vary the quantity of oil. If wanted good and cheap, and 24 hours will suit, add more oil, less turps. (Mayer.)