(A) Togi - Dashi (Bringing Out By Polishing)

The article having been subjected to the first 22 processes, as described in making Honji (Class I.), is then treated as follows:-

The picture to be transferred to the article is drawn on thin paper, to which a coating of size made of glue and alum has been applied - that known as Mino - gami is best. The reverse is rubbed smooth with a polished shell or pebble, and the outline is very lightly traced in lacquer, previously roasted over live charcoal to prevent its drying, with a fine brush made of rats'. hair. The paper is then laid, with the lacquer side downwards, on the article to be decorated, and is gently rubbed with a whalebone spatula wherever there is any tracing, and on removing the paper the impress may very faintly be perceived. To bring it out plainly, it is rubbed over very lightly with a piece of cotton - wool, charged with powdered white whetstone or tin, which adheres to the lacquer. Japanese paper being peculiarly tough, upwards of 20 impressions can be taken off from one tracing, and when that is no longer possible, from the lacquer having become used up, it only requires a fresh tracing over the same paper to reproduce the design ad infinitum.

This tracing does not dry, owing to the lacquer used for the purpose having been partially roasted, as previously mentioned, and can be wiped off at any time.

The next process is to trace out the veining of the leaves, or such lines to which in the finished picture it is desired to give the most prominence, and these lines are powdered over with gold - dust through a quill. The qualities called Mijin, Koma - kame - mijin, and Aragoku, are generally used; either finer or coarser qualities cannot be used. The article is then set to dry for 24 hours in the damp press. The outline is now drawn carefully with a rat's - hair brush over the original tracing - line with a mixture of black and branch lacquer, called Ro-si. The whole is then filled in with Lose applied with a hare's - hair grounding - brush. Gold - dust of a slightly coarser quality than Mijin is scattered over the lacquered portion, and the article is set to dry for 24 hours. Another thin coating of Ro-se lacquer is again given to the gold - powdered portions, and the article is set to dry for 12 hours. Next, a coat of Mo (black lacquer) is applied over the whole surface of the article, which is set to dry for at least 3 days. It is then roughly ground down with Magnolia charcoal, the surface - dust being constantly wiped off with a damp cloth till the pattern begins to appear faintly. Another coating of Ro lacquer is then given, and the article is set to dry for 36 hours.

It is again ground down with Magnolia charcoal as before, this time till the pattern comes well out. The ensuing processes are the same, from 28 to 33 inclusive, as in black lacquer (Honji) (a).

In making Togi - dashi on hard woods, transparent lacquer is uesd instead of 5.

(B) Hira - Makiye (Flat Gold Lacquer)

The article having been thoroughly finished, either in black or red, etc.,as already described under the head of Honji, Class I., and the following kinds, a tracing is applied to the surface as in Togi - dashi, the outline is carefully painted over with a fine brush of rats' hair, and then filled in with a hare's - hair brush, using Shitamaki lacquer (branch lacquer and red oxide of iron). Over this surface gold - dust (of the quality called Aragoku being generally used) is scattered with a brush of horse's hair (Kebo) till the lacquer will not absorb any more. The article is then set to dry for 24 hours. A thin coating is next applied over the gold, of transparent lacquer or Yoshino lacquer, and it is set to dry for 24 hours at least. It is then most carefully smoothed with camellia - charcoal, and finally polished off with Tono - ko and a little oil on the point of the finger, till the ornamented portion attains a fine polish. The veimng of leaves and the painting of stamens, etc, of flowers, or such other fine work, is now done with a fine rats' - hair brush charged with Ke - uchi lacquer over which fine gold - dust (Qoku - mijin) is scattered from a brush of horse's hair {Kebo), as before, and the article is set to dry for 12 hours.

Some Yoshino lacquer is then applied to a piece of cotton - wool, and rubbed over the whole surface of the box or other article, and wiped oft. again with soft paper. It is set to dry for 12 hours, after which it is polished off with deer's - horn ashes and a trifle of oil. When very high - class work is desired, Yoshino lacquer, to which a little water has been added, is applied, and polished off a second time, and a very brilliant surface is attained.

More ordinary "flat gold lacquer" differs in the manufacture as follows: - The tracing is accomplished in the same manner, but Shitamaki - nobe lacquer (branch lacquer, red oxide of iron, and camphor) is used for filling in the pattern with a hare's - hair brush. The article is then set to dry in the press for 10 to 20 minutes, during which time the lacquer has begun to harden, and less gold will adhere. Then gold - dust {Goku - mijin) is applied with cotton - wool thinly, and the article is set to dry for 24 hours. The whole surface is then smeared over with Yoshino - nobe lacquer {Yoshino lacquer and camphor) on a piece of cottonwool, and wiped off again with soft paper. The reason is that it is less trouble to smear over the whole surface thinly, and it is, moreover, not necessary to give a thick coat of lacquer to the decorated part, as the gold - dust has been very thinly applied. It is set to dry for 12 hours, and ground smooth with camellia - charcoal, and polished with powdered whetstone and oil on the point of the finger. The fine lines are then drawn with a rats' - hair brush charged with Shitamaki lacquer, and sprinkled with gold - dust (Goku - mijin) from a brush {Kebo), and the article is set to dry for 12 hours.

The whole is again smeared with Yoshino - nobe lacquer and carefully wiped off again with paper, and set to dry for 12 hours. The article is then polished with powdered whetstone and oil on the point of the finger; and a second application of Yoshino - nobe lacquer with a little water, wiped off with soft paper, set to dry for 12 hours, and finally polished off with deer's - horn ashes and oil on the finger, finishes the operation.

Should it be required to make any dark spots or lines, such as birds' eyes, or to draw human hair, etc, or other shading, this is done last of all with Kuma, "bear" lacquer, Jo-hana, and lampblack.