Next, a coating of Sabi is applied with the spatula, to hide the texture of the hempen cloth, and the article is again put in the press for 24 hours. Next, a coating is given of No. 1 Jino - ko, applied with the spatula, after which the article is enclosed in the drying - press for 24 hours, and this process repeated. Next, the article is given a coating of Kiriko, likewise applied with the spatula, and the drying process is repeated for 24 hours; there is then a repetition of the same process, after which the article is set to dry for at least 3 days. The surface is next ground smooth with a fine white whetstone, and a hardening coat of branch lacquer is given with a spatula, and set to dry for 24 hours. A fresh coat of Sabi is applied with the spatula, and the article is put to dry in the press for 24 hours. When thoroughly hardened, the surface is ground with a white whetstone, as before. Next, a thin coating of branch lacquer is applied with the spatula, and the article is set to dry in the press for 12 hours. A coating of Naka - nuri is applied with a flat brush (ha'.e), and the article is set to dry again for 24 hours.
On being taken out, the surface is ground smooth with charcoal made from Honoki (Magnolia hypoleucd). A thin coating of branch lacquer is given with cotton wool - old wool being chosen because less likely to leave hairs behind it - and rubbed off again with soft paper, after which the article is set to dry for 12 hours. A coating of 1:5 (black lacquer) is then applied, and the article is set to dry for 24 hours. The surface is rubbed smooth with a piece of charcoal made from Hiyakujikko (Lagerstrcwnia indica). The surface is partly polished with finely powdered Lagerstrcemia charcoal, applied with a cotton cloth. A coating of Ro is applied very thinly with cotton wool, and this is rubbed off again with soft paper, after which the article is enclosed in the drying - press for 24 hours. The surface is now polished with an equal mixture of powdered burnt clay from Mount Mari (To - no - ko) and calcined deer's - horn ashes, applied with a cotton cloth and a little oil (made from Sesamum orientate) till a fine polish is obtained. A - coating of branch lacquer is next given, applied with cotton wool very thinly, and the article is enclosed in the drying - press for 12 hours.
The workman dips his finger in oil and rubs a small quantity of it over the surface, which he then polishes with deer's - horn ashes, applied with a cotton cloth, till a bright surface is obtained. A coating of branch lacquer is applied thinly with cotton wool, wiped off with soft paper, and set to dry for 12 hours. Oil is again applied, and then a final polishing with deer's - horn ashes given with the finger to the surface, which now assumes the most brilliant polish of which it is capable.
For articles that are liable to get rubbed, such as scabbards, these last 2 processes are repeated 7 or 8 times, the surface getting harder at each repetition; but this is not necessary for other articles, even of the best quality. In describing the above processes, the minimum time for drying has in each case been given, but for the first 25 processes the longer the article is kept in the press the better. From the twenty - eighth process to the finish it is better not to greatly exceed the times mentioned.
(b) Kata - ji(hard basis); (c) Handan - ji (half - step basis); and (d) Manzo (after a lacquer - worker of that name) - modifications of the first process.
In this class the joints of the article to be lacquered are frequently not hollowed away, a strip of paper being merely pasted over them, and even this precaution being often omitted. A coating of Ka - no - ji (whiting and glue) is applied with a spatula twice or thrice, and dried in the sun. The article is then wiped over with a wet brush and rubbed smooth with a white whetstone, and afterwards given an extra smoothing with the spatula. Sometimes a thin coating of Nakanuri or of branch lacquer is given to the article, but more frequently a coating of glue and lampblack, or of glue and soot mixed together, is applied. A final coating of either Jo - hana or Jo - chiu finishes the process without any subsequent polishing.
(f) Shibu - ji (persimmon - juice basis). The joints of the article are prepared in the same manner as for (e), but instead of Ka - no - ji, 4 or 5 coats of Shibu - ji (persimmon juice and lampblack) are applied with a brush; these dry very rapidly, and the last coating is smoothed with To - kusa (Equitetutri), A final coating of either Jo-fuma or Jo-chui is given. This kind of article is chiefly made in Aidzu, and indeed goes by the name of "Aidzu ware." It has not such a good appearance as Ka-no-ji, for the grain of the wood is easily traceable under the lacquer, but being made without glue, it stands water much better, and is in general request for rice - bowls and zen (small dinner - trays with legs, one of which is set before each guest).
In this class of goods the joints are generally hollowed out, and a basis - hardening coat of branch lacquer is given. Paper is also pasted over the work after filling in the joints with Koku - so. Three coats of inferior Sabi are then applied, and after drying for about 12 hours in the press, the article is ground smooth with a while whetstone. Next comes a coating of branch lacquer, applied with cotton wool, and then one of Naka - nuri, which is ground smooth with Magnolia charcoal. Another coating of branch lacquer is followed by one of Jo - hana or Jo - chiu, and the article is finished without further polishing. Drying in the damp press is requisite after each process for this class of lacquer. It is manufactured only in Tokid, though the processes for the under coats of Wakasa lacquer are identical. Rice - bowls, drinking - cups, and luncheon - boxes, etc., are the usual articles manufactured. In this, as in Aidzu ware, the grain of the wood is traceable, and its common appearance constitutes the reason for classing it so low, but in actual excellence and durability it ought to rank fourth next to Handan - ji.