When this simple finishing can be executed properly and with ease, a more difficult style may be attempted, such as a "full gilt back." This is done in 2 ways, a "run-up" back and a "mitred" back. As a general rule, morocco is mitred. Place the book on its side, lift up the millboard and make a mark at head and tail on the back, a little away from the hinge of the back. Then with a folder and straight-edge mark the whole length of the back: this is to be done on both sides. Make another line the whole length down the exact centre of the back. With a pair of dividers, take the measurement of the spaces between the bands, and mark the size at head and tail for the panels from the top and bottom band; with a folder and strip of parchment make a line across the back, head and tail, at the mark made by the dividers.
Work a thin broad and narrow pallet alongside the bands in blind. Prepare the whole of the back with vinegar and glaire, but lay the glaire on with a sponge. When dry, lay the gold on, covering the whole of the back with it, and mending any breaks. For mitreing, take a 2-line pallet that has the ends cut at an angle of 45°, so that the join at that angle may be perfect. Work this on the side at the mark made up the back, and up to the line made in blind across the back. Repeat this to each panel. The 2-line pallet must be worked across the back and up to the lines made in gold, the cutting of the pallet at the angle will allow of the union or mitre, so that each panel is independent of the other. There will be spaces left at head and tail, which may be filled up with any fancy pallet or repetition of tools. The corners should be in keeping with the centre, and large enough to fit the panel. Work these from the sides of the square made, or from the centre of the panel, as will be found most convenient according to the thickness of the book and style of finishing, and then fill in any small stops. When the whole is done, rub the gold off with the gold-rag, and use the rubber if necessary.
The title is put on in the manner before described.
It is not always necessary that the mishing be done in blind first. One accustomed to finishing finds that a few dries marked previously with a folding-stick are all that is required. When working the title, a thread of silk drawn tightly across the gold produces ft sufficient line, and is the only guide that an experienced workman requires. To finish a side, make a mark with the folder and straight-edge as a guide for rolls or fillets. Prepare the leather, as before described, where the ornamentation is to come; but if the pattern is elaborate, it must be worked first in blind. As a greater facility, take a piece of paper of good quality and well sized. Draw the pattern on the paper, and if any tools are to be used, hold them over the gas flame; this will smoke them so that they may be worked on the paper in black. When the pattern is complete in every detail, tip the 4 corners of the paper with a little paste, then work the pattern through the paper on to the leather, using the various sized gouges as the scrolls require, and a single line fillet where there are lines. Work thus the complete pattern in blind. This being done completely, take the paper off from the 4 corners, place it on the other side, and work it in the same way.
Prepare the leather with vinegar, and pencil the pattern out with glaire. If the whole side be glaired with a sponge, it will leave a glossy appearance that is very undesirable. The whole side is now laid on with gold, and the pattern is worked again with the warm tools, in the previous or blind impressions.
The inside of a book is generally finished before the outside. This should be done as neatly as possible, carefully mitreing the corners when any lines are used. Most frequently a roll is employed, thus saving a great deal of time. A style was introduced in France called "double," the inside of the board being covered with a coloured morocco different from the outside, instead of having board papers. This inside leather was very elaborately finished; generally with a "dentelle" Vorder, while the outside had only a line or two in blind. It is a style which, although very good in itself, has quite died out with us, so many prefer to see the finishing to having it covered up when the book is shut.
The edges of the boards and the head-bands must be finished either in gold or blind, according to fancy, and in keeping with the rest of the embellishment. A fine line worked on the centre of the edge of the board by means of a fillet looks better, and of course requires more pains than simply running a roller over it. If it is to be in gold, simply glairing the edge is sufficient. Lay on the gold, and work the fillet carefully. Place the book on its ends in the finishing press to keep it steady, or it will shake and throw the fillet off. If a roll is used, take the gold up on the roll, grease it first a little, by rubbing the gold-rag over the edge to make the gold adhere. Then run the roll along the edge of the boards; the kind generally used for this purpose is called a "bar roll" - that is, having a series of lines running at right angles to the edge of the roll.
Imitation morocco is generally used for publishers' bindings, where books are in a large number and small in price; and the finishing is all done with the blocking press. To finish this leather by hand, it is advisable to wash it with paste-water and glaire twice.
Roan is generally used for circulating library work, and is very seldom finished with more than a few lines across the back and the title. This leather is prepared with paste-wash and glaire, and, when complete, varnished over the whole surface.