For each side of the book, a single leaf of white paper, somewhat thicker than that used for the ends, is cut. Lay the end papers on a board or on the press, with the pasted side uppermost, and put the single leaves on the top. Fan them out evenly to a proper width (about 1/4 in. for an 8vo), lay a piece of waste paper on the top, and paste their edges. Having thrown the slips back, the white flyleaf is put on the book, a little away from the back, the made ends on the top are placed even with the back, and the book is again left to dry beneath a weight.
Very heavy or large books should have bookbinders' cloth or leather "joints" matching the colour of the cover, morocco being mostly used for leather joints. Cloth joints may be added either when the ends are being put on, or when the book is ready for pasting down. Now the cloth is cut 1-3 in., accordiug to the size of book, and folded quite evenly, leaving the side of the cloth to go on the book the width intended to be glued: thus a width of 1 in. should be folded 3/4 on one side, leaving | on the other, and putting the 1/4 on the book. Having glued the smallest fold, the white flyleaf is put on, and the fancy paper on the top. The difference here is that the paper is single, or is cut to the size of the book and pasted all over. It is best to paste the marble paper, put on the white, rub well down, and lay them between millboards to dry. Finally a piece of waste or brown paper may be slightly fastened at the back over the whole, turning the cloth down on the book to keep it clean and prevent injury.
When the cloth joint is to be put on after the book is covered, the flyleaves and ends are only edge-pasted to the book just to hold them while it is being bound; when the book is to be pasted down, the ends are lifted from it by running a thin folding-stick between the ends and the book. The cloth is cut and folded as before, fastened on, and the ends and flyleaves are properly pasted in the back. Morocco joints are always put in after the book is covered.
Cloth joints go in better at the same time as the ends, taking care that the ends are quite dry after being made before attaching them, or their dampness will cause wrinkles.
The ends being quite dry, the slips are unravelled and scraped with a bodkin and a knife-back, so that they may with greater ease be passed through the holes in the millboard, and the cord be more evenly distributed and beaten down, to prevent their being seen in the covered book.
If the book is to be uncut, or to have a gilt top, the rough edges are "trimmed" off with a very sharp knife or shears. The book is knocked up straight, laid on a smooth-planed "trimming board," and compassed from the back as a guide; a straight-edge is laid on the compass holes, and the for-edge is cut. The object being merely to make the edges true, only the rough and dirty edges are taken off, leaving the book as large as possible. Sometimes the book is put into the cutting press, and the overplus is taken off with a "round plough," especially if a number of books are to be done together. It is better to use the straight-edge and knife for the foredge and tail, and to cut the top when the boards are on the book.
Glue is now applied to the back to hold the sections together, and make the back firm during the rounding and backing. Knock the book perfectly true at its back and head, and put it into the laying press between 2 pieces of old millboard; expose the back, and let it project from the boards a little, the object being to hold the book firm and to keep the slips close to the sides, so that no glue shall get on them; then with glue, not too thick, but hot, glue the back, rubbing it in, and taking the overplus off again with the brush.
A handful of shavings is sometimes used to rub the glue in, and take the refuse away, but a great quantity of glue is thus wasted. The Germans rub the glue in with the back of a hammer, and take away the overplus with the brush; this is better than using shavings. The back must not be allowed to get too dry, before it is rounded, or it will have to be damped with a sponge, to give the glue the elasticity required, but being wet is worse than letting it get too. dry. The book should be left for about an hour, or till it no longer feels tacky to the touch, but still retains its flexibility. A flexible bound book should be rounded first, using a backing board to bring the sheets round, instead of a hammer; then the back is glued, and a piece of tape is tied round the book to prevent its going back flat.
All books are not glued up in the press; some workmen knock up a number of books, and, allowing them to project a little over their press, glue the lot up at once; others, again, hold the book in the left hand, and draw the brush up and down the back. These last methods are, however, only practised in "cloth shops," where books are bound or cased at very low prices. The proper way is to put the book in the press; and if more than one, they should be laid alternately back and foredge, with the back projecting about 1/2 in., and allowed to dry spontaneously, on no account being dried by the heat of a fire, as all artificial heat in drying in any process of bookbinding is injurious to the work.
"Rounding" applies to the back of the book, and is preliminary to backing. In rounding the back, the book is laid on the press before the workman with the foredge towards him, and held with the left hand by placing the thumb on the foredge and fingers on the top of the book pointing towards the back, so that by drawing the fingers towards the thumb, or by pressing fingers and thumb together, the back is drawn towards the workman at an angle. The back is then struck gently with the flat or face of the hammer, beginning in the centre of the back, still drawing the back over with the left hand. The book is then turned over, the other side is treated in the same way, and so continually changed or turned until it has its proper form, which should be about 1/8 of a circle. When sufficiently rounded, it is examined to see if one side be perfectly level with the other, by holding the book up and glancing down its back, and gently tapping the places where uneven, until it is perfectly uniform. The thicker the book, the more difficult to round it; and some papers will be found more obstinate than others, so that great care must be exercised both in rounding and backing, as the foredge when cut will have exactly the same form as the back.