In setting to work upon repairing a watch, it is of great importance to adopt a regular system in submitting it to examination, always following a certain order in dealing with the various parts. This will obviate the risk of omitting some parts altogether and inspecting other parts more than once. The work is performed with the aid of the following implements : -
The "workboard" should be made of well-seasoned wood, rather large than small, and securely fixed at a convenient height in a good position as regards the light. Along the front edge should be a strip or "bead" of wood standing up about | in., and at the ends and back pieces 4-8 in., may form the border. Hooks and nails may be driven in these wide pieces for holding tools and other things. Those who have limited space use a portable tray, with a similar border, which can be placed upon any table when required. The principal point to be attended to is that there are no cracks or crevices of any kind.
The "pinion stake" is a piece of brass or steel, about 2 in. long, with a number of graduated holes drilled in it, used for resting pinions on, when the wheels need securing or mounting anew.
The "bumping-up stake" is a steel stake, either round, square, or triangular at one end and hollow at the other; the solid end being used for hammering work on, and the hollow end for resting wheels and balances on when the arms require slightly bending by a gentle tap with the hammer.
The "pin vice" is a miniature vice with a long tail, by means of which it-may be easily twirled between the thumb and first and second fingers.
The "filing block" is a small piece of box-wood, used for resting wire upon whilst it is filed up into pins.
The "sliding tongs" is a tool somewhat resembling a stout pair of pliers with straight handles, having a slide upon them by which the jaws may be tightly closed.
The "chalk box" is a little box for holding a lump of chalk upon which to rub the brushes used in cleaning, to free them from grease and dirt. It may be made by nailing up a small box 3-4 in. square underneath the work-board, with a small piece of wood to prevent the chalk falling out in front; or by fixing a piece of wood from the right support to a place underneath the workboard, when the chalk will wedge itself sufficiently firm for the purpose.
The "mainspring winder" is a tool used for winding up a mainspring, so that it may be easily placed in the barrel.
A double-ended pair of brass callipers, with a small sink made in each end of one pair of arms; and a sink and a short male centre opposite, in the ends of the other pair of arms; they are used for testing the truth of wheels, balances, &c.
Of burnishers, one flat and one oval will be necessary for burnishing the pins which hold the frame together and other purposes.
Very diminutive screwdrivers, made of small steel wire and fitted into a brass wire handle, are used for turning jewel screws.
A small sewing-needle, fitted into a piece of brass wire for a handle, filed down very fine, and then slightly flattened at the point, so as to take up a very minute quantity of oil, is used for oiling the watch.
"Bottoming broaches" are small tools, something like the preceding, only that they are "4-square," and intended to cut only at the point or end.
A set of bench keys, or of variously sized keys of the ordinary sort, bench vice, eye-glass, tweezers, watch pliers, nippers, screwdrivers, round and flat faced hammers, 2 brushes, oil-cup, knife, 2 or 3 files, covering glasses, French chalk, pegwood, tissue paper, pith, a cork or two, and 4 small examining pins, complete the equipment.
In examining a watch, take it in hand, and opening the bezel, attend to the following points before taking the movement out of the case. See that the enamel dial is not cracked or broken; that the hands fit properly, are of the right length, and quite free of the hole in the dial; that the cannon pinion is free of the glass, and that the seconds pivot is not too long and also free of the hole in the dial; that the joint pin fits tight; that the bolt and spring act correctly; that the cap is clear of the case when opening the movement, and comes freely from the frame when taken off; and that the winding-square is free of the case. Having done this, push out the joint pin, and carefully examine the movement as a whole. See that the wheels and the barrel are upright within the frame; that the wheels are free of each other, and of the frame or any part connected with it; that the chain is free of the pillar and the stop-stud; that the dial feet are not in the way; and that the dial, or brass-edge, as the case may be, fits properly against the pillar plate. By laying the nail on the surface of the glass, it will be easy to see whether there is sufficient freedom between the socket of the hand and the glass.
In case of doubt, place a small piece of paper on the hand, close the bezel and tap the glass with the finger while the watch is in an inclined position : if free, the paper will be displaced. The dome must be at a sufficient distance from all parts of the movement, more especially the balance cock. If there is any occasion for doubt on this point, put a thin layer of rouge on the parts that are most prominent. Close the case, and, holding it in one hand to the ear, apply a pressure at all parts of the back with a finger of the other hand, listening attentively in order to ascertain whether the vibrations are interfered with. If the interval is insufficient, a trace of rouge will be found on the inside of the dome. In such a case, if the dome cannot be raised nor hollowed slightly in the mandril. (when formed of metal), lower as far as possible the index work and the balance-cock wing, and fix in the plate, close to the balance, one or two screws with mushroom heads that will serve to raise the dome.