(1) Add to a boiling solution of common yellow soap, in water, solution of alum or alum-cake (alumina sulphate) as long as a separation of white alumina soap takes place; allow the precipitate to subside, wash it with hot water, heat moderately for some time, to expel adhering water, and dissolve the semi - transparent mass in warm oil of turpentine. The solution may be applied by brush, or by dipping and rolling. Oil and colours may be added to the bath, and the substance dried in the air, or more rapidly in a drying room at 90°-100° F. (32°-38° C), with care to prevent fire.

(2) 100 oz. best white or yellow wax, 6 oz. Burgundy pitch, 8 oz. ground-nut oil, 5 oz. iron sulphate, 2 oz. essence of thyme.

(3) A method of waterproofing leather and raw hides, used in southern Austria, is as follows: impregnate the substance with a gelatine solution, mixed with some mineral salt to coagulate the gelatine in the pores. The following mixtures can be used: (a) 1200 water, 15 gelatine, 5 potash bichromate; or (6) 1500 water, 50 gelatine, 30 potash bichromate; the temperature of the solution may vary from 53° F. (10° C.), to boiling-point. When the bichromate percentage is small, the liquor is used cold, and the leather or hide is immersed for 24 hours; as the proportion approaches the point of saturation, the temperature must approximate more nearly to boiling, and the time of immersion be reduced until it becomes momentary. The bichromate solution may be replaced by the following : 1000 water, 10 gelatine, 100 lead acetate, 100 alum; in every case, after impregnation on one or both sides, the leather or hide should be dried, and dressed on both sides with paraffin.

(4) For rendering hose of fire-engines completely water-tight, so as to withstand the greatest pressure, the hose, after being cleaned and dried, is impregnated with a mixture of 100 parts of glycerine and 3 of carbolic acid, which may be done either by drawing the hose through the liquid, or, better still, by brushing it well in. Thus treated, the hose preserves a certain degree of dampness, without, however, being liable to rotting in the least degree, and so suffering deterioration in quality and durability. The brass fittings of the hose are attacked only imperceptibly by the acid contained in the composition; but even this may be easily prevented by giving them before impregnation a coating of weak shellac varnish, or by greasing them well with tallow. The hose must be cleaned every time they have been used, dried, and impregnated anew with the liquid. The previous drying of the hose is, however, not necessarily essential, more especially in winter, when drying is slightly difficult; it suffices to let the water run well out of the hose.

(5) For boots and shoes. Apply to the soles as much copal varnish as they will absorb; and castor oil to the uppers. The castor oil does not prevent subsequent blacking.

(6) 1 oz. beeswax, 1/2 oz. suet, 2 oz. olive oil, 1/2 oz. lampblack; melt the wax and suet in the oil, add the lampblack, and stir till cool; warm the shoes and rub in the compound.

(7) Warm the boots by the fire and then rub in paraffin wax; it is, however, apt to soil the stockings by being melted out by the heat of the feet. A saturated solution of paraffin wax in cold naphtha, applied cold, is perhaps better.

(8) Mix together in a pipkin, on the fire, 2 parts tallow to 1 of rosin, and having thoroughly warmed the boots, apply it, melted, with a painters' brush till they will not soak in any more. If the boots are well polished before applying the mixture, they will polish afterwards.

(9) Take about 1 gill of Macintosh's indiarubber waterproofing solution, dissolve it in 2 gills raw linseed oil, adding the oil to the solution gradually. With this liquor paint the boots, giving as many coats, at intervals of 6 or 8 hours, to the leather as it will take in, which may be as many as 10 or 12. The prepared leather takes a brilliant polish.