When the roll reaches him, the moulder places his open mould before him, and then taking a roll, the head of which he places upon a special support, he thrusts his needle into the centre of the tail of the roll, and pushes it up to the head, guiding it with two fingers of the left hand, so as to keep it exactly in the centre. An inexperienced person who should try to shove the needle into the roll could not advance more than $ in. without pushing it through the side, while the workman performs the operation in a few instants on pipes 15 in. long and 0.15 in. diameter in the thickest part.

This operation is performed in the same way upon pipes of all sizes.

The roll, thus pierced, and still containing the needle, is placed in the mould, and the latter is closed and put in the press. Then the workman takes his compressor and pushes it into the open part of the mould until he meets with the extremity of the needle that enters the bowl. The clay is thus compressed and the excess is removed by means of the knife. The moulder then removes his tool, opens his press, and then his mould, takes out the pipe and passes his knife over it, so as to remove the traces of the junction of the two parts of the mould, takes out the needle, and places his pipe upon a board alongside of him.

The pipes are arranged with care upon these boards, with their stems resting here and there upon small sticks or else upon very fine sand.

When these boards are full they are delivered to the finisher, who allows the pipes to harden a little before finishing them. The finisher begins by passing another needle into the stem, then scrapes off the seams, and removes the lines or scars formed on the stem by the various parts of the mould, and, with a copper tool, indents the figures that are to appear upon the pipe. He then arranges the pipes upon other boards, and leaves the needle in them so as to prevent a curvature of the stem during drying. The boards, holding a gross of pipes, are taken to the driers, whose temperature is very high.

Pipe moulders' table.

Pipe-moulders' table.

When the pipes are sufficiently dry, workmen polish them with tools analogous to those used by burnishers, and which are manoeuvred in the same way.

The pipes are then carried to other workmen, who verify- them, reject the defective ones, and proceed to put the perfect ones in the saggers. These latter are terra cotta boxes, in which the pipes are arranged in circular beds, the bowls placed downward, and the stems united above by a defective stem in order to prevent them from getting out of place during carriage. When the saggers are full they are carried to special furnaces, and are superposed as in pottery furnaces.

In large manufactories, the operation of baking is the same as in potteries. The furnaces are in batteries of three; while one of them is being fired another is in process of cooling, and the third is being charged.

Each furnace bakes about 600 gross of pipes per day. The duration of the baking varies according to the clay, but it is at least 5 hours, and sometimes reaches 8-9.

After the baking, the furnace is allowed to cool for about 24 hours, then the saggers are taken out and the pipes are removed. The latter are then examined, and those that are well baked are polished anew.

Although the pipe is finished, it has yet to undergo another operation before it can be used, and that is dipping. The object of this is to remove the porosity of the clay, which without this would stick to the lips. For this operation the pipes are taken and dipped, one by one, in a hot bath of soap water and wax, and then drained and dried.

The manufacture of the common pipe is at length finished; but, before being delivered to the trade, certain other operations are necessary: it must be labelled, and certain styles be wrapped up, and all must be packed.

The packing is done in wooden boxes filled with straw. The pipes are arranged alongside of each other in the boxes, and the intervals between them are filled with fine straw. The workmen must have some experience, for, if the packing is too tight the jolting that the box receives will be transmitted to the interior and break the pipes; and, if it is too loose, the pipes will strike against each other and pieces will be chipped off.

This operation must be carefully performed, as some boxes go to America, others to Australia, South Africa, and even to Northern Siberia.

All the operations above described are applied to the wholly white pipe. If the pipe is coloured, it necessitates several new operations. After the pipes have been baked, they are carried to the glazing room. The operators in this latter are usually women, each of whom has in front of her a series of cups containing liquid glazes of various colours, and each cup provided with a small stick. Each pipe is taken up by the operator, who, with the stick, puts a glaze upon it either in the form of dots or bands. It is in this way, dot by dot, that the pipes that are styled glazed are finished. These pipes are remarkable for the finish that they exhibit.

The pipes thus ornamented are arranged upon plates and put in furnaces raised to a high temperature, where they undergo a new baking that vitrifies the glazing. Then, after being labelled and wrapped up, they are packed.

So much for the manufacture of pipes properly so called. With such manufacture is incorporated an accessory one - that of moulds. The moulds are of steel and of bron2e. Moulds for plain pipes are of steel, and those for ornamental pipes are usually of bronze, chilled internally. If the pipe represents a head or a complicated subject, this part of the mould is made in several pieces, in order to allow of the removal of the object. In this case the mould is always complicated, and is made with difficulty, for all the parts of it have to fit accurately and without leaving any seams on the figure.