This section is from the book "The Tinman's Manual And Builder's And Mechanic's Handbook", by Isaac Ridler Butt. Also available from Amazon: The Tinman's Manual And Builder's And Mechanic's Handbook.
This is made by slaking lime with a small portion of water, after which so much water is added as to give it the consistence of cream. It is then allowed to settle for some time, and the superfluous water is poured off, and the sediment is suffered to remain till evaporation reduces it to a proper thickness for use. For some kinds of work, it is necessary to add a small portion of hair.
This stucco consists of fine Stuff already described, and a portion of fine washed Band, in the proportion of one of sand to three of tine Stuff. Those parts of interior walls are finished with this stucco which are intended to be painted. In using this material, great care must be taken that the surface be perfectly level, and to secure this it must be well worked with a floating tool or wooden trowel. This i- done by sprinkling a little water occasionally on the stucco, and rubbing it in a circular direction with the float, till the Surface has attained a high gloss. The durability of the work very much depends upon the care with which this process is done; for if it be not thoroughly worked, it is apt to crack.
To fifteen pounds of the best stone lime, add fourteen pounds of bone ashes, finely powdered, and about ninety-five pounds of clean, washed sand, quite dry, either coarse or fine, according to the nature of the work in hand. These ingredients must be intimately mixed, and kept from the air till wanted. When required for use, it must be mixed up into a proper consistence for working with lime water, and used as speedily as possible.
This is chiefly used for mouldings and cornices which are run or formed with a wooden mould. It consists of about one-fifth of plaster of Paris, mixed gradually with four-fifths of fine stuff. When the work is required to set very expeditiously, the proportion of plaster of Paris is increased. It is often necessary that the plaster to be used should have the property of setting immediately it is laid on, and in all such cases gauge stuff is used, and consequently it is extensively employed for cementing ornaments to walls or ceilings, as well as for casting the ornaments themselves.