129. A Deck Cornice or Deck Molding is the cornice or molding used to finish the edge of a flat roof where it joins a steeper portion.

Fig. 84.   A Lintel Cornice.

Fig. 84. - A Lintel Cornice.

Fig. 85.   A Bracket.

Fig. 85. - A Bracket.

130. A Bracket, as used in sheet metal work, is simply an ornament of the cornice. Brackets in stone architecture were originally used as supports of the parts coming above them. Hence modern architecture has kept up that idea in their designs. (Fig. 85.)

131. Modillions are also cornice ornaments, and differ from brackets only in general shape. (Fig. 86.) While a bracket has more depth than projection, modillions have more projection than depth.

132. A Dentil is a cornice ornament smaller than a modillion, which in shape usually represents a solid with plain rectangular face and sides. Dentils are never used singly, but in courses, the spaces between them being less than their face width. (Fig. 70.)

133. A Corbel is a modified form of bracket. It is used to terminate the lower parts of window caps, and also forms the support for arches, etc., in gothic forms.

Fig. 86.   A Modillion.

Fig. 86. - A Modillion.

Fig. 87.   A Head Block.

Fig. 87. - A Head Block.

134. A Head Block or Truss is a huge terminal bracket in a cornice, projecting sufficiently to receive all the moldings against its side, thus forming a finish to the end of the cornice. (Fig. 87. )

135. A Stop Block is a block-shaped structure, variously ornamented, which is placed above the end bracket in a cornice, and which projects far enough to receive against its side the various moldings occurring above the brackets, forming an end finish. (Fig. 88) 130. A Pinnacle is a slender turret or part of a building elevated above the main building. A small spire. (Fig. 89.)

Fig. 88.   A Stop Block.

Fig. 88. - A Stop Block.

Fig. 89.   A Pinnacle.

Fig. 89. - A Pinnacle.

137. A. Finial is an ornament variously designed, placed at the apex of a pediment, gable, spire or roof.

138. Capital. - The tipper member or head of a column or pilaster. It may vary m character according to the style of architecture with which it is employed, from a few simple projecting moldings around the top of the column to an elaborately foliated ornament. The lowermost mold is called the neck mold and the uppermost member sustaining the weight of the lintel or arch above is called the abacus. (Fig. 90.)

Fig. 90.   Capitals.

Fig. 90. - Capitals.

189. Panel. - A sunken compartment having molded edges used to ornament a. plane surface, as a frieze ceiling, planceer or tympanum. A panel may, however, be raised instead of sunken.

The margin or spare between the sides of the panel and the edges of the surface in which it is placed is usually made equal all around and is called the stile.

140. A Volute is a spiral scroll used as the principal ornament of a capital and is placed under the corners of the abacus. For method of drawing the volute see Probs. 81 and 82, Chap. IV.

141. A Molding is an assemblage of forms projecting beyond the wall, column or surface to which it is affixed. (See first part of Chap. V.)

142. Crown Molding is the term applied to the upper or projecting member of a cornice. (Fig. 75.)

143. Planceer or Plancher is the ceiling or under side of the projecting part of a cornice. (Fig. 75.)

144. The Bed Moldings of a cornice are those moldings forming the lower division of the cornice proper, and which arc made up of the bed course, modillion course and dentil course. (Fig. 75.)

145. The Bed Course is the upper division of the bed moldings, the part with which the bracket heads and modillion heads ordinarily correspond, and against which they miter. (Fig. 75.)

146. The Modillion Course of a cornice embraces the modillions and all the moldings which are immediately back of and below them. The plain surface lying back of or between the modillions is called in sheet metal work the modillion band, and the molding immediately below them the modillion molding. (Fig. 75.)

147. The Dentil Course of a cornice embraces the dentils and all the moldings to which the dentils are attached as ornaments, comprising the dentil band and dentil molding. (Fig. 75.)

148. Foot Molding is the common term used to designate the lower molding in a cornice. It is fre quently in this connection used in the sense of architrave. (Fig. 75.)

149. A Bracket Molding, also called bracket head, is the molding around the upper part of a bracket, and which generally members with the bed molding, against which it finishes. (Fig. 75.)

150. A Gable Molding is an inclined molding which is used in the finish of a gable.

151. A Ridge Molding is a molding used to cap or finish a ridge. It is also called a ridge cupping or simply ridging.

152. A Hip Molding is a molding used to protect and finish the hips or angles of a roof. It is very frequently included in the more general term ridging.

153. A Fascia is a plain band or surface below a molding, or, in other words, the unornamented face of a portion of a cornice or architrave. (Fig. 75.)

154. A Fillet is a narrow plain member of a mold-ing used to finish or separate the different forms (a a a a Fig. 75 are fillets.)

155. A Drip is a downward projecting member in a cornice or in a molding, used to throw the water off from the other parts. (Fig. 75.)

156. Sollit is the term applied to the under side of a projecting molding, cornice or arch.

157. A Sink is a depression in the face of a piece of work or in a plain surface. (See face of bracket Fig. 85, side of modillion, Fig. 86.)

Architectural Terms 92Fig. 91.   Stays.

Fig. 91. - Stays.

158. Incised Work is a style of ornamentation consisting of fine members and irregular lines, sunken or cut into a plain surface. (See side of bracket Fig. 85.)

159. The Stay of a molding is its shape or profile cut in sheet metal. (Fig. 91.)

160. Rake Moldings are those which are inclined, as in a gable or pediment; since to miter a rake molding with a level return under certain conditions necessitates a change or modification of profile in one; or the other of the moldings to rake means to make such change of profile.

161. A Raked Molding:, therefore, is a term describing a molding of which the profile is a modification of some other profile.

Fig. 92   Elevation of a House.

Fig. 92 - Elevation of a House.

162. A Raked Profile or Raked Stay describes the profile or stay which has been derived from another profile or stay, by certain established rules, in a process like that of mitering a horizontal and inclined molding together.

163. The Normal Profile or Normal Stay is the original profile or stay from which the raked profile or stay has been derived.

Fig. 98.   Plan of a House.

Fig. 98. - Plan of a House.

164. A Flange is a projecting edge by which a piece is strengthened or fastened to anything.

165. A Hip is the external angle formed by the meeting of two sloping sides or skirts of a roof which have their wall plates running in different directions.