Front with Cover On.

Front with Cover On.

Top with Cover Off. Fig. 124.   India Ink Slab.

Top with Cover Off. Fig. 124. - India Ink Slab.

Several makes of liquid drawing ink are also to be had, which possess the advantage of being always ready for use, thus doing away with the rubbing process. The ink costs about 25 cents a bottle, keeps well, and will answer almost every purpose quite as well as the stick ink.

Thumb Tacks or Drawing Pins, both names being in common use, are made of a variety of sizes, ranging from those with heads one-quarter of an inch in diameter up to eleven-sixteentns of an inch in diameter. They are likewise to be had of various grades and qualities. The best for general use are those of German silver, about three-eighths to five-eighths of an inch in diameter, and with steel points screwed in and riveted Those which have the points riveted only are of the second quality. The heads should be flat, to allow the T-square to pass over them readily. In the annexed cut, Fig. 125, are shown an assortment of kinds and sizes. Those which are beveled upon their upper edges are preferable to those which are beveled underneath.

Fig. 125.   Thumb Tacks, or Drawing Pins.

Fig. 125. - Thumb Tacks, or Drawing Pins.

A Box of Instruments. - Fig. 126 shows a box of instruments of medium grade, as made up and sold by the trade generally. While it contains some pieces that the pattern cutter has no use for, it also contains the principal tools he requires, all put together in compact shape, and in a convenient manner for keeping the instruments clean and in good order. The tray of the box lifts out, there being a space underneath it in which may be placed odd tools, pencils, etc. Tools may be selected, as required, of most of the large dealers in drawing instruments. It will be found advantageous to the pattern cutter to buy his instruments singly as he requires, them, as by so doing he will get only what he requires for use, and will probably secure a better quality in the tools. After he has made his selection, a box properly fitted and lined should be provided for them and can be obtained at a small cost, or made if desirable.

Fig. 126.   A Box of Instruments.

Fig. 126. - A Box of Instruments.

India Rubber. - A good rubber with which to erase erroneous lines is indispensable in the pattern cutter's outfit. The several pencil manufacturers have put their brands upon rubber as well as upon pencils, and satisfactory quality can be had from any of them. The shape is somewhat a matter of choice, flat cakes being the most used. A very soft rubber is not so well adapted to erasing on detail paper as the harder varieties, but is to be preferred for use in fine drawings on good quality paper.

Paper. - The principal paper that the pattern cutter has anything to do with is known as brown detail paper, or manila detail paper. It can be bought of almost any width, from 80 inches up to 64 inches, in rolls of 50 to 100 pounds each. It is ordinarily sold in the roll by the pound, but can be bought at retail by the yard, although at a higher figure. There are different thicknesses of the same quality. Sonic dealers indicate them by arbitrary marks, as XX, XXX. XXXX; others by numbers 1. 2, 3; and still others as thin, medium and thick. The most desirable paper for tin-pattern cutter's use is one which combines several good qualities. It should be just as thin as is consistent with strength. A thick paper, like a stiff card, breaks when folded or bent short, and is, therefore, objectionable. The paper should be very strong and tough, as the requirements in use arc quite severe. The surface should be very even and smooth, yet not so glossy as to be unsuited to the use of hard pencils. It should be hard rather than soft and should be of such a texture as to withstand repeated erasures in the same spot without damage to the surface.

White drawing paper, which the pattern cutter has occasionally to use in connection with his work, can be had of almost every conceivable grade and in a variety of sizes. The very best quality, and the kinds suited for the finest drawings, come in sheets exclusively, although the cheaper kinds are also made in the shape of sheets as well as in rolls. White drawing paper in rolls can be bought of different widths, ranging from 36 to 54 inches, and from a very thin grade up to a very heavy article, and of various surfaces. It is sold by the pound, in rolls ranging from 80 to 46 pounds each, and also at retail by the yard. A kind known as eggshell is generally preferred by architectural draftsmen.

Drawing paper in sheets is sold by the quire, and at retail by the single sheet. The sizes arc generally indicated by names which have been applied to them. The following are some of the terms in common use. with the dimensions which they represent placed opposite:

Cap..............

13

x

17

Demy.....................

15

x

20

Medium..........

17

x

22

Royal.......................

19

x

24

Super Royal.....

19

x

27

Imperial.................

32

x

30

Elephant.................

23

x

28

Atlas.............

26

x

34

Columbier...........

23

x

35

DoubleElephant....

27

x

40

Antiquarian......

31

x

53

Emperor...............

48

x

68

Still another set of terms is used in designating French drawing papers. Different qualities of paper, both as regards thickness, texture and surface, can be had of any of the sizes above named.

Tracing Paper and Tracing Cloth. - The pattern cutter baa frequent use for tracing paper, and a good article, which combines strength, transparency and suitable surface, is very desirable. Tracing paper is Bold both in sheets, in size to correspond to the draw-. ing papers above described, and in rolls, to correspond in width to the roll drawing paper. It is usually priced by the quire and by the roll, although single sheets or single yards are to be obtained at retail. The rolls, according to the kinds, contain from 20 to 80 yards. There are various manufacturers of this article, but it is usually sold upon its merits, rather than by any brand or trade-mark. Tracing cloth, or tracing linen, is used in place of tracing paper where great strength and durability are required. This article comes exclusively in rolls, ranging in width from 18 to 42 inches. There are generally 24 yards to the roll, and prices are made according to the width, or, in other words, according to the superficial contents of the roll. Two grades are usually sold, the first being glazed on both sides and suitable only for ink work, and the second on but one side, the other being left dull, rendering it suitable for pencil marks. Upon general principles, pencil marks are not satisfactory upon cloth, even upon the quality specially prepared with reference to them. It is but a very little more labor or expense to use ink, and a much more presentable and usable drawing is made. Tracing paper may be used satisfactorily with either pencil or pen.