Crinoline or Paper, 5x5 Inches (2 pieces).
Duster or Washcloth.
A hem is made by folding a piece of material twice over. The depth of the first turn depends on the material; it should be just deep enough to secure it from fraying. In fine muslin it may be less than 1/8 of an inch; the second turn is regulated by the requirements of the garment for which it is prepared. In order to turn a deep hem accurately, a gauge or a card notched at the proper depth may be used. A fold is held in place as it is turned by creasing it with the finger and thumb, or if this stretches the cloth, it may be folded between the fingers and pinched. The material should be held up in the hands as the folding and creasing are done, and not laid on a table or desk. In a narrow hem the second fold just covers the first. Square corners should fold one over the other. In a wider hem the corners may either be squared or mitered. If the former, and the material is thick, an oblong of cloth should be cut out, as in preparing for Miter No. 1. If the latter, see Miters No. 1 and No. 2 below.
Take two pieces of crinoline or paper, fold a narrow hem on each side of the four sides of one piece, and a half inch hem on each of the four sides of the other piece. Turn two opposite sides before folding the other sides over them. This will make regularity at the corners. Miter the two diagonal corners of the wide hem, using Miter No. 1 for one corner, and Miter No. 2 for the other. Cut an oblong from under the square corners of the wide hem.
The folding of hems may be given to little children. It is well for them to understand the tape measure and make one for themselves before they begin the folding. The marking and folding must be done carefully. Manila paper or crinoline are good for the first practice. The paper should be raised in the hands for folding. Samples of woven material which may illustrate to the children the varying depths which must be allowed in the first fold of the hem, on account of the fraying of the cloth, will help to make this lesson interesting and useful. Dusters of cheesecloth can be made by the first and second grades. The folds can be held sufficiently well with the coarse running-stitch made with wool or zephyr. The older girls should use the various miterings (No. 5) at the corners of the pieces on which they practice the folding.