This section is from the book "Text-Book On Domestic Art", by Carrie Crane Ingalls. Also available from Amazon: Textbook On Domestic Art: With Illustrations And Drafts.
Take three running stitches (see No. 5); go back one whole stitch in the same hole the last stitch ended, coming out twice the distance on under side of goods. Repeat. This is used for joining long seams by hand.
The half back stitch has one running stitch on the right side and twice the length of that stitch on wrong side. It goes back only half the distance of the first stitch on the right side, making a succession of short, even stitches on the right side with a little space between and a lap-over stitch on the wrong. It is a stronger way of joining cloth than the preceding stitch.
The whole back stitch is one even running stitch on right side, going back one whole stitch through the same hole, making one continuous line of stitches with no space between. This is used in place of machine stitching and is the strongest of all the plain stitches.
One-half inch below this last stitch, crease a line or fold of the material for a tuck which is. sewed with a small, running stitch. Where the extra thicknesses fold on the hem the needle must go in and out separately or it is liable to break and the stitches will be too large. Start at the hem edge with an over and over stitch first, in order to make the tuck firm and take one stitch at a time 1/16 inch from the edge. In the same way make a second tuck 1/2 inch below this one. Tucks are used to shorten, or in case of shrinkage as a means of lengthening a garment, or, where very fine tucks are made, as ornamental.
Below these tucks and 1 inch to right of hem, draw a rectangle lxl 1/2 inches, the shorter line being the perpendicular. Cut out on these lines. Cut each corner diagonally about 1/8 or 3/16 inch. Crease the raw edges on wrong side before putting on patch.
A patch is a piece of cloth used to cover an open space on another piece of material, where darning or weaving can not be applied. The use of the patch is to render the torn spot strong but unnoticeable, and except for contrast or effect, is always of the same material as the torn goods. Patches are used mostly on cotton goods, while woolens are more easily darned.
The patch must first be matched to the grain of the material that is to be patched; this grain constitutes the warp, woof, bias and crossway of all textiles.
The warp is the length, straight or selvage of the goods - the foundation threads in the process of weaving. They run vertically.
The woof or filling is the width of the goods -the threads that are woven into the warp threads in the opposite direction. They are usually inferior in strength and quality to the warp threads.
A crossway cut is not a true bias cut but is midway between the warp and bias or the woof and bias.
Cut out a rectangular patch of same material as sampler and larger than the space to be covered to allow for turning in. Lay this patch on the wrong side of sampler, matching it to the grain of the cloth and pinning it in place before basting, with the corners square and clean cut. Hem or blind stitch very fine with No. 9 needle and 90 cotton. Pull out basting thread, turn on wrong side, cut the goods evenly 1/4 inch from the edge just hemmed. Fold under the raw edge 1/8 inch for hem, baste and hem as on right side.
Below the tucks, 1 1/4 inch to left of the overcast edge, draw or crease, then cut a vertical line 1 1/2 inch long. This is a warp cut and is to be darned.
The darning stitch is a very fine running stitch woven in and out and back and forth on the right side. Darning is used to fill a space when a patch is not necessary. A piece of cloth may be put underneath to strengthen the darned place and woven in at the same time. These two raw edges should be brought together without puckering, misshaping or raveling, nor should they be overlapped. A woof tear makes the easiest of all darns as the stitches are woven with the warp.
Start at the top of the cut and work down without tying a knot in the thread. Leave the raw edges on the under side and at each start make the return stitch as short as possible. Each line of stitches must be parallel. End on the wrong side with a short over and over stitch. Press the darn on the wrong side wetting it slightly, or on the right side, first laying a damp cloth over it.
In the center of the sampler, between the patch and the darn, draw then cut out a round hole the size of a small thimble. This is to be darned or woven. Use No. 20 8-ply darning cotton with a No. 6 darning needle. Split the strands, using two at a time. Commencing at the right near the top, make a running stitch around the edge of the circle, and starting at same place, make the foundation threads parallel with the warp threads of the sampler. Take a small full stitch each time leaving the raw edges on the under side never using the same hole for the return stitch but instead, taking a short horizontal stitch, thus making a space between the vertical rows. After the hole has been covered with warp rows, start the horizontal lines at the lower right edge, taking a firm stitch, and weaving in and out. or over then under, never missing a warp strand. In the second row weave first under and then over, alternating the stitches with those of the first row. The third row should begin and correspond with the first row, the fourth with the second, and so on. End on the wrong side with a back stitch. Keep the foundation threads flat while drawing them thru and do not draw the goods. In weaving the filling, the surface can be held over a large baste spool or something flat, to keep from puckering. This simple form of weave is the first known example of holding fibers together and is called a plain weave.
When the sampler is completed press it on the wrong side and familiarize each stitch that has been worked.
In the upper hem write the name of worker and the date.