Frederick A. Draper.

Photography is too often but a passing fad with many who first embrace it with enthusiasm. Various reasons are advanced to account for the diminishing interest that overtakes so many who start with the brightest of prospects. That it is "expensive " is admitted, where any and all kinds of views are taken, often only to gratify a momentary whim. That it can be made a pleasing and permanent recreation with incidental profit is also a fact, though this may not be generally known by those who have failed. If one will only consider the causes which have contributed to both success and failure and utilize this information, many mistakes will be avoided, and success be more easily achieved. Those who contemplate riding this fascinating hobby will likewise benefit if they but follow the injunction to "look before you leap."

The failure to do good work is the rock that wrecks many an enthusiastic beginner. The finished print is the objective end in photographic work. All the work of focusing, exposing, developing, and printing is here finally shown. This requires that each stage should receive due care. Carelessness or error in one part will surely mar the final result. Satisfactory work can only follow close attention to all details, until experience has shown which is the correct process. This means study and application, especially during the early attempts, and care always. This method of work, however, soon proves its value in the better and more valuable results achieved. When high-grade work becomes the rule and not an accident, then the item of " expense" no longer prevents the enjoyment of photography.

This period of apprenticeship and of study necessary to becoming an artist should be worked out with good and suitable tools. Beginning with the plates, and omitting all question of the brand, the matter of speed is one that receives, from the beginner at least, very little thought. "Instantaneous " is the one kind used, whether suitable or not and "orthochromatic" plates are almost an unknown quantity. The result cannot be satisfactory.

The day, the view, the exposure, the kind of print, all influence the problem of selecting the plate, and the one chosen should be that most likely to produce the desired result. The testing of new kinds should progress slowly, however, and, preferably, those from the same maker should be used until their action is well understood. An instructive experiment is that of taking the same view with time, instantaneous, orthochromatic, and backed plates, and then, with these negatives, printing on various kinds of paper.

The differences in the intensity of light requires study, especially when indoor work is attempted. A familiarity with this important matter will materially lessen the number of failures. The use of an actinometer should be learned, and it should be utilized for about all indoor work. One that will answer for most purposes can easily be made. How to make and use one will be the subject of another paper soon to be presented in these columns.

The variations in the developer should be limited to the least number that will properly provide for the range of work being done. One which is of medium speed and easily controlled is most suitable for the beginner. One-solution developers are largely advertised and possess some good points, but for a wide range of work two-solution developers will be more satisfactory. The particular kind of work in hand and the kind of print to be made regulate the make-up of the developer. For storing the various solutions, choose a bottle of a size that will just contain the quantity on hand, so no air space will be left in the top. Use rubber stoppers. The air in a half-empty bottle will so affect some solutions as to make them useless.

Printing papers are now so numerous and in such variety as to afford ample opportunity for developing the artistic possibilities of a negative to the utmost. The gas-light papers make evening work a delight and enable the daytime leisure to be used in view taking.

Enlargements are a feature that the novice generally is anxious to attempt. Here again the question of light must be carefully studied, not only as applied to the whole plate, but also to different parts of the same plate. " The intensity of the illumination varies inversely as the square of the distance from the source of light." That is, if a certain negative one foot from the light requires five seconds' exposure, at two feet it would require twenty seconds. Correct focusing is also important. The light should be of large area with a large reflector, and negative and paper should be perpendicular and accurately placed to secure even definition. The distance between light and negative varies to suit the necessities of the negative.

Enlarged negatives are now receiving much attention by progressive amateurs, the claim being that the contact prints secured from such negatives are much more satisfactory than paper enlargements. A paper plate recently placed on the market would seem to be particularly adapted to this work, the cost being much less than for glass plates.

As an example of how some income may be secured from photographic work, the experience of an acquaintance of the writer is here given. He started with the usual 4x5 camera, acquired some experience, but soon found that the small pictures were in but little demand. A 61/2 x81/2| was the next acquisition. He soon had a small collection of negatives of some fine bits of scenery in his neighborhood, also a few of the public buildings, etc. Prints were made in a variety of tones, mounted on mats of suitable shades, on which calendar pads were fastened. With the assistance of a friend, whose store was well located, he secured a large sale. One manufacturing company took several hundred and had a neat card printed in one corner, the size of the calendar being reduced to allow it. He is now preparing to do a good business with summer tourists, a sample frame with business card being hung in several of the hotels to attract attention. What he has done can be duplicated in hundreds of places throughout the country. The professional photographer in the smaller places very rarely develops local possibilities of this kind, or, if he attempts it, makes poor work of it, so does not require consideration in this field. Artistic views will always meet with a good sale, and our readers will secure satisfactory returns if they can do work good enough to secure the patronage of the public.