In building outdoor structures, such as grape arbors, pergolas, or arches, it is not necessary to use sawed lumber, as they can be built as substantial, and frequently more artistic and cheap, o f poles.

Arbor Made of Poles Which are Supported by One Row of Uprights

Ill: Arbor Made of Poles Which are Supported by One Row of Uprights

These are easily obtained, especially in the country or in the smaller cities where there usually are many trees and gardens.

The illustrated grape arbor consists of but one row of uprights. Across the top of each is placed a horizontal support for the roof poles, as shown in Fig. 1, which is carried near its outer end by an inclined brace. The brace should be connected at each end with a toe joint, as shown in Fig. 2. The upper end of the upright is beveled off on both sides, to form a double-splayed joint with the crosspiece. In order to securely bind the roof of the arbor, the long poles, or roof beams, should be notched near each end to fit over the supports. Similar notches in the poles forming the side of the arbor are to fit the uprights, thereby binding them together and preventing toppling over. Each set of long poles connecting two uprights should have the end notch< the same distance apart, one pole being used as a gauge. All the joints an notches may be cut with a sharp hatchet.

In setting the arbor, the uprights should first be assembled complete wit braces and roof supports, and placed i the ground a distance apart corre-sponding to that of the notches on the long poles. The uprights being set, the long poles are placed and fastened with nails. - Contributed by W. E Crane, Cleveland, Ohio.