Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°, but when in motion, or under pressure, much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. In the same way, ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure, and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed, when it will again return to its original state. Snow, being simply finely divided ice, becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands, and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball, because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid.

This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. A block of ice, A, Fig. 1, is

Experiment with A Block of Ice

Experiment with A Block of Ice

Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB, and a weight, W, is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. 2. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece, as shown in Fig. 3. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure, but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed, for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through.

Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. It may seem strange that ice should flow like water, but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight, and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends, and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. The rate of flow is often very slow; sometimes only one or two feet a day, but, no matter how slow the motion may be, the large body of ice has to bend in moving.

This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself, but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax, which resembles ice in this respect. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it, but by placing it between books, as shown on page 65, or supporting it in some similar way, it will gradually change from the original shape A, and assume the shape shown at B.