This section is from the book "Scientific American Reference Book. A Manual for the Office, Household and Shop", by Albert A. Hopkins, A. Russell Bond. Also available from Amazon: Scientific American Reference Book.
The commercial production of asbestos in the United States in 1902 was chiefly from the mines at Sall Mountain, White County, Georgia, with smaller quantities from Hillsdale, Berkshire County, Massachusetts. This production was 1,005 short tons, valued at $16,200, an increase of 258 tons in quantity and of $2,702 in value over the production of 1901, which was 747 short tons, valued at $13,498. The production in 1900 was 1,054 short tons, valued at $16,310. In addition there were reported as produced but not marketed in 1902 1,500 short tons of crude asbestos, valued at $30,000.
Under this title are included the various bitumens or hydrocarbons not discussed under the heading "Petroleum" in the volume on Mineral Resources. The commercial production of asphaltum in 1902 was 105,458 short tons, valued at $765,048, as compared with 63,134 short tons, valued at $555,335, in 1901 - a large increase, amounting in quantity to 42,-324 short tons and in value to $209,-713. The production of crude asphaltum in 1902 is reported as 66,238 short tons, valued at $236,728.
In 1902 the production of bauxite increased to 29,222 long tons, valued at $128,206, as compared with 18,905 long tons, valued at $79,914, in 1901. Georgia yielded the greater bulk of the product, the remainder being supplied by Alabama and Arkansas.
California was the one State to produce any chro-mite during 1902, the quantity being 315 long tons, valued at $4,567, a decrease of 53 tons in quantity and of $1,223 in value, as compared with the production of 1901, which was 368 long tons, valued at $5,790.
The production of feldspar in 1902 was 45,287 short tons, valued at $250,424, as against 34,741 short tons, valued at $220,422, in 1901.
This variety of talc or soapstone occurs in but one locality in the United States - Gouverneur, St. Lawrence County, New York. It is used principally as makeweight in the manufacture of paper. In 1902 the production was 71,100 short tons, valued at $015,350, an increase of $131,750 in value and of only 1,900 tons in quantity, as compared with the production of 69,200 short tons, valued at $483,600, in 1901.
The production of flint in 1902 was 36,365 short tons, valued at $144,209, as compared with 34,420 short tons, valued at $149,297, in 1901.
As reported for the Survey, the production of fuller's earth in 1902 showed a decrease in quantity and an increase in value, being 11,492 short tons, valued at $98,-144, as compared with 14,112 short tons, valued at $96,835, in 1901. The maximum production of fuller's earth was obtained in 1897, when the production was 17,113 short tons.
The production of glass sand in 1902 was 943,135 short tons, valued at $807,797; the production of engine, furnace, building, molding and other sands, mined incidentally, was 904,776 short tons, valued at $615,817 - a total production of 1,847,-901 short tons of sand, valued at $1,-423,614.
The commercial production of crystalline graphite during 1902 amounted to 3,936,824 pounds, valued at $126,141, as compared with 3,967,612 pounds, valued at $135,914, in 1901, and with 5,507,855 pounds, valued at $178,761, in 1900. The commercial production of amorphous graphite in 1902 was 4,739 short tons, valued at $55,964, as compared with 809 short tons, valued at $31,800, in 1901. The decline in value was due to a proportionate increase in the production of the lower grades. Considerable development and exploratory work was done during the year in Montana, Wyoming, North Carolina and New Mexico. In addition, 30,000 pounds of refined graphite, valued at $1,800, and 20,716 short tons of crude graphite, valued at $43,600, were reported as produced but not marketed in 1902. This gives a total production of 3,966,824 pounds of refined graphite and of 25,455 short tons of amorphous graphite, with a total value of $227,-508, as produced in 1902. The production of artificial graphite was 2,358,-828 pounds, valued at $110,700, the average price being 4.69 cents per pound, as compared with 2,500,000, valued at $119,000, in 1901, the average price being 4.75 cents per pound.
The quantity of limestone used for fluxing in blast furnaces in 1902 was 11,878,-675 long tons, valued at $5,271,252, as compared with 8,540,168 long tons, valued at $4,659,836, in 1901, and with 7,495,435 long tons, valued at $3,687,-394, in 1900.
The production of magnesite in the United States continues to be limited to California, and during the year 1902 the commercial production reported was 3,466 short tons, valued at $21,362 - a large decrease as compared with the production in 1901, which was 13,172 short tons, valued at $43,057. Of the 1902 production, 380 tons, valued at $1,723, were sold in 1902, but were mined previously.
The production of mica in 1902 was as follows: 373,266 pounds of plate or sheet mica, valued at $83,-843; 1,028 short tons of scrap mica, valued at $13,081, and 372 short tons of rough mica, valued at $21,925 - a total value of $118,849.
The total production of mineral waters for 1902 was 64,859,151 gallons, valued at $8,793,-761, as compared with 55,771,181 gallons, valued at $7,586,962, in 1901 - a gain in quantity of 9,088,263 gallons and in value of $1,206,799.
The production of monazite is confined exclusively to North Carolina and South Carolina, by far the larger quantity being obtained from the former State, and in 1902 this amounted to 802,000 pounds, valued at $64,160, as compared with 748,-736 pounds, valued at $59,262, in 1901 - an increase in quantity of 53,264 pounds and in value of $4,898. The price per pound received by the miners for the monazite produced in 1902 varied from 2.5 to 8 cents, according to the percentage of thoria.
The value of the gems and precious stones found in the United States in 1902 was $328,450, as compared with $289,050 in 1901, with $233,170 in 1900, and with $185,-770 in 1899. There has been a great advance in the lapidary industry in the United States since 1894. The fact that larger establishments have been formed, which are able to purchase the rough diamonds in greater quantities, has placed our American diamond cutters in a position equal to that held by the cutters of Amsterdam. Antwerp and Paris. The cutting of our native gems has also grown to the proportions of an industry, notably in the case of the beryls and the amethyst found in North Carolina and Connecticut; the turquoise from New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada and California; the fine-colored and deep-blue sapphires found in Montana; the colored tourmalines of San Joaquin County, California; the chrysoprase mine of Visalia, Tulare County, California; the garnets of Arizona and New Mexico, and the pale-purple garnets of North Carolina.
The production of rutile in 1902 was less than in 1901.
Exclusive of the production of fibrous talc from Gouverneur, New York, the production of talc and soapstone in 1902 amounted to 26,854 short tons, valued at $525,157, as compared with 28,643 tons, valued at $424,888, in 1901 - a decrease of 1,789 tons in quantity and an increase of $100,269 in value. The output for 1900 was 27,943 short tons, valued at $383,541, and for 1899 it was 24,765 short tons, valued at $330,805. - Mineral Resources of the United States.