[Footnote: Abstract of a lecture delivered before the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia, Jan. 20.1881, in exposition of principles laid down in The Hypothesis of Evolution, New Haven, 1870, p. 31.]

By E. D. COPE.

The ability to read character in the form of the human face and figure is a gift possessed by comparatively few persons, although most people interpret, more or less correctly, the salient points of human expression. The transient appearances of the face reveal temporary phases of feeling which are common to all men; but the constant qualities of the mind should be expressed, if at all, in the permanent forms of the executive instrument of the mind, the body. To detect the peculiarities of the mind by external marks has been the aim of the physiognomist of all times; but it is only in the light of modern evolutionary science that much progress in this direction can be made. The mind, as a function of part of the body, partakes of its perfections and its defects, and exhibits parallel types of development. Every peculiarity of the body has probably some corresponding significance in the mind; and the causes of the former are the remoter causes of the latter. Hence, before a true physiognomy can be attempted, the origin of the features of the face and general form must be known. Not that a perfect physiognomy will ever be possible.

A mental constitution so complex as that of man cannot be expected to exhibit more than its leading features in the body; but these include, after all, most of what it is important for us to be able to read, from a practical point of view.

The Developmental Significance Of Human Physiognom 392 12a

FIG. 1.--Section of skull of adult orang-outang (Simia
satyrus). FIG. 2.--Section of skull of young orang, showing
relatively shorter jaws and more prominent cerebral region.

The present essay will consider the probable origin of the structural points which constitute the permanent expression. These may be divided into three heads, viz.:

1. Those of the general form or figure.

2. Those of the surface or integument of the body, with its appendages.

3. Those of the forms of the head and face.

The Developmental Significance Of Human Physiognom 392 12b

FIG. 3.--Figure of infant at birth; a, front of face. (The
eye is too far posterior in this figure.)

The principal points to be considered under each of these heads are the following:

I. The General Form

1. The size of the head.

2. The squareness or slope of the shoulders.

3. The length of the arms.

4. The constriction of the waist.

5. The width of the hips.

6. The length of the leg, principally of the thigh.

7. The sizes of the hands and feet.

8. The relative sizes of the muscles.

FIG. 4.  Portrait of a girl at five years of age.

FIG. 4.--Portrait of a girl at five years of age.

II. The Surfaces

9. The structure of the hair (whether curled or not).

10. The length and position of the hair.

11. The size and shape of the nails.

12. The smoothness of the skin.

13. The color of the skin, hair, and irides.

II The Surfaces 392 12d

FIG. 5.--Portrait of the same at seventeen years, showing
the elongation of the facial region, and less protuberance
of the cerebral.

III. The Head And Face

14. The relative size of the cerebral to the facial regions.

15. The prominence of the forehead.

16. The prominence of the superciliary (eyebrow) ridges.

17. The prominence of the alveolar borders (jaws).

18. The prominence and width of the chin.

19. The relation of length to width of skull.

20. The prominence of the malar (cheek) bones.

21. The form of the nose.

22. The relative size of the orbits and eyes.

23. The size of the mouth and lips.

III The Head And Face 392 12e

FIG. 6.--Profile of a Luchatze negro woman,
showing deficient bridge of nose and chin, and elongate facial region
and prognathism.

The significance of these, as of the more important structural characters of man and the lower animals, must be considered from two standpoints, the paleontological and the embryological. The immediate paleontological history of man is unknown, but may be easily inferred from the characteristics displayed by his nearest relatives of the order Quadrumana. If we compare these animals with man, we find the following general differences. The numbers correspond to those of the list above given:

I. As to General Form.--(3) In the apes the arms are longer; (8) the extensor muscles of the leg are smaller.

II. As to Surface.--(9) The body is covered with hair which is not crisp or woolly; (10) the hair of the head is short; (18) the color of the skin, etc., is dark.

III. As to Head and Face.--(14) The facial region of the skull is large as compared with the cerebral; (15) the forehead is not prominent, and is generally retreating; (16) the superciliary ridges are more prominent; (17) the edges of the jaws are more prominent; (18) the chin is less prominent; (20) the cheek bones are more prominent; (21) the nose is without bridge, and with short and flat cartilages; (22) the orbits and eyes are smaller (except in Nyctipithecus); (24) the mouth is small and the lips are thin.

III The Head And Face 392 12f