The motor of MM. Schaltenbrand & Moller is adapted for use for household purposes, where small power is required, as in driving sewing machines.
Fig. 1 shows the motor with all its parts in side elevation, the flywheel and head rest being in section. Fig. 2 is a side view, with the air reservoir and distribution valve in section through the line 1-2. Figs. 3 and 4 represent the same apparatus, but without support, as where it is to be used on the table of a sewing machine, with the crank of the motor directly fastened to the flywheel of the sewing machine. Fig. 5 is a plan or horizontal section at the level of the line 3-4, and Fig. 6 is a section passing through the same line, but only including the cylinder and axis of the distributing valve. Fig. 7 is a horizontal section of the button of the cock through the line 5-6 of Fig. 3. Finally, Fig. 8 shows in detail, plan, and elevation the arrangement of the starting valve.
This little motor does not show any new principle. It uses the old oscillating cylinder, but it embraces in its construction ingenious details which render its application very simple and very easy, especially, as we have already said, to sewing machines.
In the first place, the oscillating bronze cylinder, A, is cast in one piece with the distribution cock, a, Fig. 3, and its seat, b, also of bronze, is adjusted and fastened by means of the screw, b, to the air reservoir, C', cast with its cistern, C, acting as foundation or bed plate for the motor. This cistern is held either on the base of the cast iron bearing frame, D, of the main shaft, d, d, Figs. 1 and 2, or directly on the sewing machine table, Figs. 3 and 4, by means of two pins, e and e', so that it can oscillate about an axis which is perpendicular to the shaft, d, to which is attached the disk, F, carrying the crank.
This arrangement of parts, in combination with the horizontal axis of the distribution valve and with the piston rod, g, considered as a vertical axis of rotation, forms a species of universal joint between the crank pin and the table, so that it can be put in place without adjustment by any workman, who only has to screw up the two screws, h, to fasten to the table the standard, E, and the piece, E', in which are screwed the pivots, e and e', which support the tank, and this all the rest of the motor.
As is seen more clearly in Fig. 2, the water under pressure enters by the pipe, c, to which is attached a small tube of India rubber, and leaves by the pipe, c', and is carried away by another India rubber tube.
The openings of the distribution cock are symmetrically pierced in the seat and plug, which latter is divided internally by a horizontal diaphragm so arranged that at each oscillation communication is established alternately above and below the piston. So that it can be started or stopped quickly, the opening and closing of the throttle valve, i (Fig. 2), is effected by a single pulling movement upon the handle, I, and this draws out the valve horizontally. For this end the lever is pivoted upon the extremity of the valve stem, and ends in a bar engaging with a fork which acts as its fulcrum. This fork is cast in one piece with the plug, J, which closes the opening through which the valve is put in place, as shown in detail in Fig. 8. To prevent the lever from spinning out of the fork when it is pulled or pushed, this lever is prevented from turning by the valve stem, provided for this purpose with a double rib, i' (Figs. 2 and 8), which engages in slots in one piece, j, secured in the interior of the plug, J.
Lest the friction of the conical distribution valve oscillating with the cylinder should occasion a loss of power, care is taken to leave the key free in its seat, b, by not forcing the pivot, k (Figs. 1, 3, and 5), whose position in its seat is regulated by the screw, k'. It follows that a very slight escape of water may be produced, but that does no harm, as it is caught in the reservoir, C, provided with a little pipe, K (Figs. 1 and 3), to carry it away.
To maintain proper relations between the pressure of the water, or the work it is called upon to do, and the motor, the quantity of water introduced into the cylinder at each stroke of the piston is regulated by adjusting the length of stroke by the crank pin. For this end the course of the latter is made variable by means of the piece, f, adjusted by set-screw in the interior of the disk, F (Figs. 3 and 7), and tapped for the reception of a screw terminated by a milled button, f. If this button is turned, it moves the piece, f, and therefore regulates the distance of the crank pin, g', to which the piston rod, g, is attached (Fig. 3) from the center of rotation.
When the motor is arranged as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, or for the transmission of motion by means of a band wheel, p, cast in one with the flywheel, P, the disk which receives the crank pin of variable position is fixed directly upon the axle, d, of the same flywheel carried by the support, D; but when the motor can be applied directly, as is the case for example in the Singer sewing machine, upon the axle of the machine, no support is used, and the arrangement shown in Figs. 3 and 4 is adopted. In this case the disk, F', is cast with three arms which serve, by means of a screw, to fasten it to the flywheel carried by the axle of the sewing machine.
When the motor is used on the upper stories of buildings, the changes of speed incidental to drawing the water from the lower stories from the same pipe can be compensated by the use of an accumulator. This accessory apparatus is composed of a reservoir of a capacity of 10 liters or more, intercalated in the pipe which supplies the motor, so that the water coming from the principal pipe enters the bottom of this reservoir, passing through an India rubber valve opening inward, the supply for the motor coming through a tube always open and placed above this valve. The air trapped in the accumulator is compressed by the water, and when the pressure in the pipe decreases, the valve closes and the compressed air drives the water through the motor with decreasing pressure until normal pressure is re-established in the pipes. - Publication Industrielle.