The two lower curves in Fig. 54 illustrate this, from which it is at once plain that the magnetizing power for very brief currents is greater when the two coils are put in parallel with one another than when they are joined in series.

Now this circumstance has been known for some time to telegraph engineers. It has been patented several times over. It has formed the theme of scientific papers, which have been read both in France and in England. The explanation generally given of the advantage of uniting the coils in parallel is, I think, fallacious; namely that the "extra currents" (i.e., currents due to self-induction) set up in the two coils are induced in such directions as tend to help one another when the coils are in series, and to neutralize one another when they are in parallel. It is a fallacy, because in neither case do they neutralize one another. Whichever way the current flows to make the magnetism, it is opposed in the coils while the current is rising, and helped in the coils while the current is falling, by the so-called extra currents. If the current is rising in both coils at the same moment, then, whether the coils are in series or in parallel, the effect of self-induction is to retard the rise of the current.

The advantage of parallel grouping is simply that it reduces the time constant.

## Battery Grouping For Quickest Action

One may consider the question of grouping the battery cells from the same point of view. How does the need for rapid working, and the question of time constant, affect the best mode of grouping the battery cells? The amateur's rule, which tells you to so arrange your battery that its internal resistance should be equal to the external resistance, gives you a result wholly wrong for rapid working. The supposed best arrangement will not give you (at the expense even of economy) the best result that might be got out of the given number of cells. Let us take an example and calculate it out, and place the results graphically before our eyes in the form of curves. Suppose the line and electromagnet have together a resistance of 6 ohms, and that we have 24 small Daniell cells, each of electromotive force say 1 volt, and of internal resistance 4 ohms. Also let the coefficient of self-induction of the electromagnet and circuit be 6 quadrants. When all the cells are in series, the resistance of the battery will be 96 ohms, the total resistance of the circuit 102 ohms, and the full value of the current 0.235 ampere. When all the cells are in parallel, the resistance of the battery will be 0.133 ohm, the total resistance 6.133 ohms, and the full value of the current 0.162 ampere.

According to the amateur rule of grouping cells so that internal resistance equals external, we must arrange the cells in 4 parallels, each having 6 cells in series, so that the internal resistance of the battery will be 6 ohms, total resistance of circuit 12 ohms, full value of current 0.5 ampere. Now the corresponding time constants of the circuit in the three cases (calculated by dividing the coefficient of self-induction by the total resistance) will be respectively - in series, 0.06 sec.; in parallel, 0.5 sec.; grouped for maximum steady current, 0.96 sec. From these data we may now draw the three curves, as in Fig. 55, wherein the abscissae are the values of time in seconds and the ordinates the current. The faint vertical dotted lines mark the time constants in the three cases. It will be seen that when rapid working is required the magnetizing current will rise, during short intervals of time, more rapidly if all the cells are put in series than it will do if the cells are grouped according to the amateur rule.

FIG. 55. - CURVES OF RISE OF CURRENT WITH DIFFERENT GROUPINGS OF BATTERY.

When they are all put in series, so that the battery has a much greater resistance than the rest of the circuit, the current rises much more rapidly, because of the smallness of the time constant, although it never attains the same ultimate maximum as when grouped in the other way. That is to say, if there is self-induction as well as resistance in the circuit, the amateur rule does not tell you the best way of arranging the battery. There is another mode of regarding the matter which is helpful. Self-induction, while the current is growing, acts as if there were a sort of spurious addition to the resistance of the circuit; and while the current is dying away it acts of course in the other way, as if there were a subtraction from the resistance. Therefore you ought to arrange the battery so that the internal resistance is equal to the real resistance of the circuit, plus the spurious resistance during that time. But how much is the spurious resistance during that time? It is a resistance proportional to the time that has elapsed since the current was turned on. So then it comes to a question of the length of time for which you want to work it.

What fraction of a second do you require your signal to be given in? What is the rate of the vibrator of your electric bell? Suppose you have settled that point, and that the short time during which the current is required to rise is called t; then the apparent resistance at time t after the current is turned on is given by the formula:

R = R × e(R/L)t + ( e(R/L)t - 1 )

## Time Constants Of Electromagnets

I may here refer to some determinations made by M. Vaschy,4 respecting the coefficients of self-induction of the electromagnets of a number of pieces of telegraphic apparatus. Of these I must only quote one result, which is very significant. It relates to the electromagnet of a Morse receiver of the pattern habitually used on the French telegraph lines.

 L, in quadrants. Bobbins, separately, without iron cores. 0.233 and 0.265 Bobbins, separately, with iron cores. 1.65 and 1.71 Bobbins, with cores joined by yoke, coils in series 6.37 Bobbins, with armature resting on poles. 10.68