See qalian.


Huris are beautiful female beings who in the Muhammadan Paradise minister to the spirits of the Faithful. Seventy-two are allotted to each good Muhammadan, who may also have the company of any of his earthly wives whom he cares to ask for. See Qur'an, sura 56.


The head Khan or Chief of a tribe, or series of tribes, a super-chief.

Iran is what the Persians themselves call Persia; Irani is "Persian " or "a Persian." jinn. Jinns are beings something between men and angels. The "genie" of the Arabian Nights is the same word, but the Arabian Nights "genie" is more like the Div of these Persian stories. The Qur'an tells about jinns, and many Persians quite believe in them.

They are supposed to appear sometimes as cats, etc., and people are said to be "possessed" by them when we only think they are suffering from an epileptic or hysterical fit. jinnu. Coin of very small value, about one-tenth of a shahi.


Headman of a village; literally "the master of the house (or houses)." karur. Half a million, 500,000. The same word in India, pronounced "crore," means ten million, 10,000,000. khan. The chief of a tribe; man of high social standing. The word is sometimes appended to a proper name as an empty title, e.g. Ahmad Khan. madrasah. School (for bigger children). Malik ut Tujjar. Leader, or Chief of the Merchants. mann. A measure of weight of very variable value. The Kermani mann is about six and three-quarter pounds avoirdupois. marten-stone. It is uncertain what this is. Presumably it is in some way connected with the animal whose name it bears. Mecca. Mecca, in Arabia, is the Holy City of the Muhammadans, for it is there that their Prophet Muhammad was born, and in it stands their most sacred mosque. It is the duty of every true believer, if it is at all possible, to make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his life (Qur'an, sura 22). This pilgrimage is called the Hajj, and a man who has made it is given the title "Hajl" So-and-so. misger. Coppersmith. The plural is misgeran.


It is the proper thing for Muhammadans to be reminded when it is time for them to say one of their five daily sets of prayers, so wherever there is a mosque a mulla goes up into one of the minarets and chants out the Arabic Call to Prayer. This summons is known as the "azan," and the man who chants it is the "mu.azzin" (muezzin). These are Arabic words. Where there is no mosque, any one who knows it may chant the azan. mulla or akhund. A Muhammadan holy man, able to read and write, and knowing a great deal about religion. For this reason he is usually a teacher. He can also perform burial and marriage ceremonies, and write divorce certificates. A woman teacher may also be called a mulla. The Kermanis and Bakhtiaris also call any one who can read and write a mulla. nastaran. A tree-rose, growing to 20 or 30 feet in height, of an umbrella shape, not unlike a weeping willow, but that all the branches spring from the ground. The long sprays are covered with small glossy dark green foliage, and studded thick with large white blossoms like big dog-roses which have velvety petals, a yellow centre, and a most delicious perfume. pashmak. A kind of sweetmeat that looks like a heap of unspun silk. peri. A supernatural being, usually a woman, beautiful and kind, but unfortunately liable to fall in love with human beings, which is inconvenient for their real wives and husbands. Peri is really the same word as the English "fairy." pilgrimage to Mecca. See Mecca.


A dish in which the principal ingredient is rice, well washed and cooked in ghee or butter. Almonds, raisins, and shredded fried onions are mixed up in it, and often well-cooked chicken or other meat. qalian. A pipe in which the smoke is cooled by passing through cold water. It is sometimes called "hubble-bubble" in English from the noise it makes. qasab. A square measure, roughly about 25 square yards. qazi. A sort of magistrate who dispenses justice according to Muhammadan religious law.

He is also allowed to perform marriage ceremonies and to write divorces. Qizilbash. The "Red Caps" were hired soldiers of some Moghul race, who used to be thought the best and bravest soldiers of the Persian army, in the days when there was one.


A silver coin; ten qrans are equal to one tuman. For some time before the Great War a qran had been worth about fourpence or fivepence, but long ago it used to be worth more, and during the War it went up to ninepence or tenpence. Quran. The holy book of the Muhammadans, corresponding to the Bible of Christians. Ramazan. (1) The Muhammadan month of Fasting, when the pious Muslim (i.e. Muhammadan) will not eat, drink, or smoke from sunrise to sunset.

(2) A man's name often given to boys who are born during the month of the Fast. salam. "Peace," greetings. salam 'aleikum. "Peace be upon you" is the proper Muslim greeting instead of our "Good morning" or "Good evening." The correct reply is 'Aleikum us salam - "Upon you be peace." sesta. This is a shrub or small tree like the hawthorn, and has edible berries. shah. King, the king of Persia. Shah Abbas. The greatest of the later kings of Persia; he reigned from A.D. 1587 to 1629, and so was partly contemporaneous with Queen Elizabeth. shahi. A small copper coin equal to one-twentieth part of a qran. It seems from one of the stories that there existed in olden times a "silver shahi" of some value. sherbatu. A sort of treacly liquid into which you can dip your bread. It is made with loaf sugar, butter, and spices. simurgh. A magic bird. He is sometimes said to have been the griffin. sowar. A horseman, rider. Suleman. "Hazrat Suleman" is our "King Solomon." The Muhammadans believe that he was a great magician and understood the language of the beasts and birds. The Kermanis and Bakhtiaris usually pronounce his name Sulemun. sura. A chapter of the Qur'an. tujjar. Merchants, the plural of tajir. tuman. A Persian "dollar" equal in value to ten qrans. The tuman, like our guinea, isn't a real coin, it is only a "money of account." In former days the tuman used to be worth 3 and upwards, nowadays it varies in value from about 4 to 8 English shillings. yakhdan (Bakhtiari, yakhdun). A sort of wooden mule-trunk, covered with leather. wazir. King's chief adviser and administrator. Zerda, Zerda Kuh. A very high mountain in the Bakhtiarl country, which has snow on the top of it during the whole or most of the year. Zingi. See Alla Zingi.