This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is limestone rocks, maritime cliffs. The habit is erect. The plant is smooth, herbaceous. The stems are woody below, ribbed, simple, wiry, leafy. The leaves are linear, smooth or rough, entire, single - ribbed, numerous, dotted, acute, thick, narrowed from the base to the middle. The flowerheads are yellow, in terminal, corymbose heads, dense, and hemispherical. The flower-stalk bears bracts, and is slender. The involucre is loose, gummy, downy. The phyl-laries are awl-like, shorter than the flowers. The achenes have reddish pappus in 2 rows. The plant is 9-18 in. high, flowering from August to October, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is alpine rocks, highland mountains. The plant is erect in habit. The rootstock is short. The plant is hairy. The aerial stems are scapes. The leaves are mainly radical, oblong, lance-shaped, narrowed below, spreading. The stem-leaves are few, linear to oblong. The scapes bear 1 or more heads, and are solitary or few. The flowerheads are solitary, with a yellow disk and light purple ray, borne on stout flower-stalks. The ray-florets are numerous, twice as long as the disk, with a very slender ligule, longer than the pappus. The inner female florets are tubular, numerous, slender. The involucre is hairy. The phyllaries are villous, awl-like to lance-shaped. The pappus is reddish. The plant is 6-8 in. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is alpine rocks and highland mountains. The habit is nearly erect. The stems are simple. The leaves are lance-shaped, broader than in the last, woolly both sides. The stem-leaves are blunt-pointed, broad, the floral leaves suddenly smaller, those in the middle of the stem broadest. The flowerheads are in short, close, terminal, nearly stalkless, leafy spikes, longer in proportion to the involucre. The phyllaries are blackish-brown. The fruit is longer, the pappus white. The plant is 6-10 in. in height, and flowers from July to September, being a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is alpine and sub-alpine rocks, highland mountains. The plant is prostrate in habit. The plant is tufted, leafy, with cottony, appressed wool. The roots are dark-brown, fibrous. The mainly radical leaves are linear, lance-shaped, downy both sides. The scapes are erect, with few linear leaves, downy both sides. The flowerheads are stalkless, few, 1-5, distant, in short terminal spikes or racemes. The phyllaries have a membraneous margin, and are brown above, woolly, the outer blunt, the inner acute. The achenes are downy, with white pappus. The plant is 1-4 in. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is damp rocky places. The plant is exceedingly rare. The habit is erect. The stem is leafy, softly downy. The leaves are linear to oblong, tuberculate, toothed, fringed with hairs, rigid. The lower leaves are inversely ovate to lance-shaped, smooth above, slightly hairy below, the veins netted with crisped hairs. The stem-leaves are half-clasping, glossy, rough, the margin turned back. The flowerheads are solitary, or 3-5 in a corymb, with yellow florets. The involu-cral bracts are linear to oblong, fringed with hairs, the outer leafy ones turned back. The ligules are slender. The pappus is dirty white. The fruit is smooth. The plant is 12-18 in. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.