This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is seashores. The plant is densely white-felted. The leaves are deeply divided nearly to the base, with broad, blunt segments. The flowerheads are pale-yellow in simple or nearly simple racemes, the heads large, erect, rounded, bell-shaped. The stem-leaves and phyllaries are all densely white-felted. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering in August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
Senecio spathulifolius, D.C. - The habitat of this plant is maritime rocks, sea cliffs, calcareous rocks, and the plant is rare. It has been regarded as a variety of S. campestris. The plant is shaggy. The plant has the rosette habit. The stem is simple, and is tall and stout. The radical leaves are ovate to spoon-shaped, arachnoid (covered with a cottony down) above, woolly below. The stem - leaves are enlarged below, ovate to oblong, narrowed into broadly-winged stalks. The upper leaves have no stalks, and are linear or lance-shaped, clasping. The flowerheads are yellow, the involucre woolly. The fruit is stiffly hairy. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous biennial or perennial.
The habitat of this plant is sandy places near the sea. The habit is erect. The stem is erect, branched, hoary, the leaves densely hoary or cottony beneath. The branches are long and slightly winged. The florets are purple in 1-3 large heads, with spreading phyllaries. The fruit is minutely pitted with several rows of pappus. It is 1-4 ft. in height, and flowers from June to August, being biennial.
The habitat of this plant is sandy fields, shores, and slopes. The habit is erect, the stem being branched, forming a panicle above. The stems and branches are rigid, covered with a cottony down, slender, with acute angles. The lower leaves are divided nearly to the base, with linear segments. The heads are oblong with purple flowers. The pappus is not so long as the fruit, consisting of scaly bristles. The plant is 1 ft. in height, flowers in July, and is a herbaceous biennial.
The habitat of this Knapweed is sandy places near the sea. The habit is prostrate, then ascending. The stem is slender, with slender branches, spreading, downy, the tips cottony. The leaves are stalkless, linear, entire. The flower-stalks are leafy, the flowerheads brownish red, the involucre rounded, the leathery bracts tipped with turned-back spreading spines, the heads solitary and terminal. The fruit is grey and downy, the pappus not so long as the fruit. The plant is 1-2 ft. in height, flowering from June to September, and is a herbaceous perennial.
St. Barnabas Star Thistle (Centaurea solsti-tialis, L.). - The habitat of this thistle is fields, dry pastures, and other places near the sea. It is often introduced with Lucerne, Sainfoin, and usually found on cultivated land. The habit is erect, the rigid stems numerous, being branched, winged, cottony, the lower leaves with lobes larger towards the tip, the upper entire, the base running down the stem. The terminal solitary heads are borne on flower-stalks, the flowerheads yellow, with long, spreading upper bracts, the central involucral spines long and slender, needlelike. The fruit is white, with soft pappus as long as the fruit. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, and flowers between July and September, being a herbaceous annual.
The habitat of this species is maritime. It has not been met with since 1876, when it was found at Pethy Cur by Syme. The stem is branched, tall, hairy, stiffly hairy below, woolly-felted above. The few, 2-3, basal leaves form a false rosette, and are egg-shaped to lance-shaped, elliptic, blunt, nearly entire, the inner lance-shaped, toothed. The 3-5 stem-leaves are nearly stalkless, acute, like the basal, sharply toothed, all narrowed below, bluish-green below, stiffly hairy on the midrib and margin. The panicle forms a kind of corymb, branched, with 1-2 lower ascending branches, with few flowers. The stalks bear bracteoles, and are stiffly hairy, woolly-felted, glandular. The few heads are rounded to egg-shaped. The phyllaries are dark green, linear, narrow, lance-shaped, blunt, the inner rather acute, with a pale border, woolly-felted, hairy and glandular. The ligules are fringed with hairs. The styles are yellow turning brown. The plant is 1-2 1/2 ft. high, flowering in June, and is a herbaceous perennial.