This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is woods. The plant has the shrub habit. The stem is small, with rough bark, rounded, much branched. The small branches and leaf-stalks are hairy and glandular. The leaves are leathery, smooth, linear, lance-shaped, toothed. The flowers are numerous, nodding, in a terminal, loose, smooth panicle, on short stalks, cream-coloured. The sepals are short and rounded. The berry is orange scarlet, tubercled, nearly round. The plant is 8-10 ft. in height, flowering in September and October, and is an evergreen shrub.
The habitat of this plant is woods, and heaths in the north. The plant has the rosette habit. The rootstock is creeping. The stem is short, rather woody, and the leaves are numerous, rounded or oval, scalloped, with large bracts. The flowers are milky-white with a pinky tinge, numerous, not much expanded, in a raceme, the lobes of the calyx egg-shaped, acute. The stamens are bent inwards, not so long as the straight or slightly bent style, with a ring at the base of the stigma which has 5 small, blunt, erect lobes. The style projects slightly, and is somewhat longer than the ovary. The capsule is 5-valved, witli minute seeds. The plant is 8-12 in. in height, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of the plant is mountain woods, moist woods, and copses, damp bushy places, and reedy marshes, heaths, etc. The habit is as in the last. The stem bears larger spreading bracts. The leaves are numerous, round, entire, slightly scalloped, inversely egg-shaped. The leaf-stalks are long and slender. The flowers are in a long raceme, white, numerous, expanded. The segments of the calyx are lance-shaped, acute. The stamens are shorter than the style, turned up, ascending or erect. There is a ring below the stigma on the style which is bent down, and curved up at the end, longer than the corolla. The lobes of the stigma are erect and small. The plant is 8-12 in. in height, and flowers in July and August, being a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is mountain woods, rocky woods, mossy alpine woods, and heaths. The habit is as in the last or more prostrate, the stem straggling with ascending branches. The leaves are numerous, egg-shaped, acute, toothed, forming a rosette, or alternate, thin, netted, on short stalks. The scape is slender with 1-5 bracts. The flowers are arranged all on one side of a raceme, with linear bracteoles, drooping or horizontal, nearly closed, greenish-white, with hollowed, oval-oblong petals, the sepals blunt, notched, rounded, triangular. The stamens are in-bent, not so long as or equal to the style, which is long and straight, ascending. The stigma is broad and lobed, without a ring, and the style lengthens in fruit, and projects. The capsule is drooping. The plant is 2-6 in. high, and flowers in July and August, being a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is woods chiefly in the N". & W. Highlands of Scotland. The habit is as in the last. The stem is leafy. The leaves are few, rounded, toothed, or spoon-shaped, wavy, alternate, membranous, shortly-stalked. The scape bears one bract at the top. The flowers are large, open, solitary, drooping, then erect, terminal, white. The petals are nearly flat, spreading. The sepals are fringed with hairs, blunt and broad. The stamens are shorter than the corolla, closely pressed to the petals. The stalks of the anthers are curved. There is no ring round the long style. The long stigmas are persistent, largre. The capsule is erect. The plant is 1-3 in. in height. It flowers from June to August, and is a herbaceous perennial.