This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is calcareous woods. The habit is the grass habit. The plant is stoloniferous. The stems are thread-like, drooping, 3-sided, rough above, with scaly sheaths. The leaves are flat, slender, sparsely hairy, rough on the keel and margin. There is no ligule or a short one. The panicle is drooping, or a onesided, simple raceme, the rachis wavy. The spikelets are drooping, egg-shaped, 6-10, and 2-flowered, the 2 upper flowers complete. The empty glumes are purple, oblong, the flowering glumes greenish, keeled, purple, hairless. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering in May and June, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is shady and rocky places. The habit is as in the last. The leaves and spikelets are few, erect, the perfect flowers similar. The panicle is loose, branched, slightly drooping, the rachis thread-like. The ligule is long,.from the auricles of the sheath. The stalks are hairlike, roughish, 2-flowered. The glume equals the palea. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering from May to July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is woods, copses, and shady places. The habit is the grass habit. The root is somewhat creeping. The stem is smooth, like the sheaths, which are furrowed, the upper not longer than the leaf, green or bluish-green, very slender, rounded or slightly flattened. The leaves are linear, narrow, limp, the upper horizontal. The ligule is short and blunt. The panicle is slender, drooping, with branches 2-5-divided, roughish. The spikelets are egg-shaped to lance-shaped, the 3-4 flowers webbed, yellowish-green. The empty glumes equal the 1-5 flowering glumes with a downy keel and margin. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is woods and plantations in deep shade. The plant has the grass habit. The stem is 2-edged, with a creeping rhizome. The plant is tufted. The leaves are hooded, broad, the edges and midribs rough as well as the sheaths, the upper sheath not longer than its leaf. The ligule is blunt and very short. The panicle is branched. The spikelets are oval, with 3-5 acute, not webbed florets, the lower pale with 5 hairless veins. The plant is 2-5 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is woods and shady places, moist thickets, damp woods, hedgebanks. The plant has the grass habit. The root is fibrous. The stem is smooth, round, nodding. The leaves are very long, broad, flat, rough both sides, except near the base below, linear, lance-shaped, limp, bright-green, finely furrowed. The sheaths are smooth. The ligule is unequal, auricled. The panicle is open, drooping, branched. The spikelets are linear, egg-shaped, pale-green, and bear 3-8 florets, roughish, and the awn is slender, wavy, twice as long as the flowering glume. The empty glumes are lance-shaped, the flowering glumes divided into 2 nearly to the base. The plant is 2-4 ft. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.