This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this species is damp, shady places, waste places. The habit is erect. The stem is downy. The leaves are downy, ovate, lance-shaped, opposite or in whorls, stalked, dotted, the upper leaves narrower. The flowers are yellow, with a corolla fringed with hairs, the segments ovate, glandular, the stalks in the axils, opposite or whorled, i-flowered, downy, rarely branched, not so long as the leaves. There are 5 stamens. The plant is 1-I5 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
This plant is found near gardens and waste places. The habit is erect. The stem is tall, rigid. The leaves are opposite, ovate to lance-shaped, not dotted, more or less heart-shaped, the stalks fringed with hairs. The flowers are pale yellow, the corolla - segments round, scalloped. The flower-stalks are axillary, opposite or in whorls. There are 10 anther-stalks, free, 5 being function-less. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is bogs and meadows, moist pastures, in the N. of England and S. of Scotland. The plant has the rosette habit. The leaves are green above, not wrinkled, very mealy below, mealy white or yellow (hence farinosa), with a waxy secretion which prevents the stomata from being- clogged, inversely egg- - shaped to spoon-shaped, lance-shaped, scalloped, blunt or acute, without hairs above. The flowers are in an umbel, borne on a scape or not (rarely), pale-lilac, with a yellow centre, but vary, and are erect or spreading, crowded. The lobes of the calyx are longer than the tube, not so long as the corolla-tube, linear. The calyx is inversely egg-shaped to acute, mealy. The lobes of the corolla are far apart, flat, inversely egg-shaped, wedge-shaped, rounded below, divided into 2 nearly to the base. The limb is flat, the lobes are as long as the tube, and the tube has folds in the throat, with a narrow mouth. The capsule is twice as long as the tube, cylindrical to oblong. The stigma is pin-headed. The plant is 2-9 in. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this species is sandy heaths, turfy places near the coast, and pastures. The plant resembles P. farinosa in habit (q.v.). The leaves are inversely egg-shaped to lance-shaped, green above, mealy below. The flowers are in umbels, bluish-purple, with a yellow centre. The calyx is swollen, the teeth short, egg-shaped, blunt, as long as the tube, shorter than the corolla - tube. The corolla-lobes are inversely heart-shaped, close, concealing half the tube, the limb flat. The stigma has 5 points. The ovary is rounded. The capsule is scarcely longer than the calyx, oblong. The plant is 1-4 in., flowering from May to September, and is a herbaceous perennial. The flowers are homomorphic. Pollination is otherwise as in P. vulgaris. The seeds are blown out of the capsule, open above, by the wind.
Tufted Loosestrife (Lysimachia thyrsijlora, L.).
The habitat of this plant is marshes in the N. of Britain and canal-banks. The habit is erect. The rootstock is creeping, the plant stoloniferous. The stem is simple and stout. The leaves are opposite, rarely in whorls, stalkless, lance-shaped, the lower not so large, the upper larger, with black dots. The flowers are small, yellow, in dense racemes, in the lower axils, cylindric, on long stalks more or less erect. The ultimate flower-stalks are as long as the calyx. The lobes are linear, dotted. The corolla is bell-shaped, divided nearly to the base into 5 narrow segments, with very small teeth between. Both calyx and corolla bear orange spots. The anther-stalks, which are combined below, form a ring, and project, as does the style. The capsule is egg-shaped, 5-valved. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.