This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this species is marshes and fenny places. The habit is erect. The stem is hollow, round in section, grooved. The leaves are tri-pinnate, triangular. The leaflets are divided to the base, stalked, the segments narrow, lance-shaped to linear, with a long point. The flowers are white, small, in compound umbels, stout and rough, with many rays. The general involucre consists of numerous persistent bracts, lance-shaped, bent down. The fruit is broadly oblong, with thick, narrow wings, the stripes of the commissure being furrowed. The styles are very short. The plant is 3-5 ft. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is ballast hills, waste ground, and the plant is very rare. The plant is more bushy and slender, less glaucous, more branched than the common species. It is pale green in colour. The radical leaves are pinnately 3-5-lobed, or divided nearly to the base, spinous, stalked, the stem-leaves clasping', twice pinnatifid. The leafstalks are thick, more or less round, channelled. The petals are purplish or white, the phyllaries lance-shaped, spinous, longer than the heads, the scales of the receptacle entire. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous biennial.
The habitat of this plant is waste places near the sea, ruins; and near the sea (as in Norfolk) it is locally abundant. The stem is round, solid, furrowed, leafy, branched, forming a panicle above, with opposite branches. The stem-leaves are stalked, trifoliate, coarsely toothed. The radical leaves are large, 3-4-ternate. There are membranous sheaths, with hairy margins. The leaflets are ovate, shining, cut, coarsely toothed. The flowers are greenish-yellow, in lateral and terminal, rounded, dense umbels. The rays are few or many, long or short. The fruit is black or dark-brown, with ridges, aromatic. The plant is 3-4 ft. high, flowering from April to June, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is chalky fields and cultivated ground and waste places. The habit is erect, the stems simple or branched above, hollow. The leaves are perfoliate or united around the stem, oval, acute, and the bract is oval, and united below. There is no general involucre. The florets are yellow. The partial involucre is converging. The fruit is not granulate, without vittae, the ridges slender, with finch' furrowed interstices. The plant is 8 in. to 1 1/2 ft. in height, and flowers in June and July, being a herbaceous annual.
This is an alien, and found in hedgerows by roadsides and in fields. The habit is similar to the last, the stem slender, hollow, erect, simple or branched, the leaves with parallel nerves lance-shaped, the lower elliptical, and on long stalks, the upper linear, half-clasping, and bent back. The florets are small, yellow. . The five bracts are lance-shaped, linear, and as long as the florets. The fruit is narrow with prominent ridges, and not granulate. The plant is 1-4 ft. in height, (lowering in August, and is perennial.