HERE we shall find the cross-leaved Heath (Erica tetralix), with its whorls of four slender leaves and its pale hells. Many a mass of ling and heather bloom beside it, though their home is on the moorland >and the mountain.

The lovely Grass of Parnassus (Parnassia palustris) blooms in autumn. Though called a grass, it has nothing in common with the green covering of our fields. It is found frequently in the north of England, and is occasionally found in suitable situations in the Midland shires. Its angular stem, which bears its handsome cream-coloured flowers, is only a few inches high; and round its root the heart-shaped leaves spring from long foot-stalks, like a violet. The plant received its name from its being considered as a fit flower for the Muses' care.

The Bog Orchis (Malaxis paludosa), a small plant with yellowish-green flowers, may be looked for when the autumn sets in. It may be known by the margin of the leaves being rough, with incipient buds. Tlie Marsh Cudweed (Gnaphalium uliginosum) lifts, too, its woolly-branched stalk and its yellowish-brown chaffy head to the sun.

The Marsh Gentian or Felwort (Swertia perennis) is a somewhat rare plant now. Its trumpet-like blue bells are open to the sun like a chalice, to catch the dew, and are streaked with yellowish-green. They grow above the narrow leaves on a stem nearly a foot high. The tonic properties of this herb are much used even now.

Another elegant marsh plant is the minute Ivy-leaved Bellflower {Campanula hederacea), but unfortunately it is rarely to be met with save in alpine districts in England, where it makes its home by the side of the waterfall. I have met with it frequently in Ireland, but its hair-like stems, ivy-shaped leaves, and purplish bells, are not obtrusive to the eye.

The fruit bushes that stud the marsh are equally common to the moorland and mountain, and there we have observed them.

Marshlands And Bogs 56