To an observant person nothing is more evident than the change of plant life, often abrupt, with change of soil. For miles all the dusty road the same daisies and asters repeat themselves.

Then an unusually verdant spot, with specifically different growths, appears, and unerringly indicates wetter soil, a spring, a running brook, or a river. In its wake its own beloved flow tread, hugging its banks, refusing to stray back into the drier fields or woods. The banks of streams are often marshy, with overflowing and stagnant water. The dividing line, therefore, between vegetation peculiar to river banks and swamp plants is sometimes difficult to trace. A flower of wet soil not found in this chapter should be sought in the next.

Says Thoreau, "Rivers and lakes are the great protectors of plants against the aggression of the forest, by their annual rise and fall, keeping open a narrow strip where these more delicate plants have light and space in which to grow."

For Descriptions See Page Reference

Bur-reed (Sparganium curycarpum). Page 40.

(S. simplex). Page 38.

(S. minimum). Page 40.

Arrow-head (Sagittaria latifolia). Page 40. Sometimes growing in water.

Water Plantain (Alisma Plantago-aquatica). Page 40. Shallow water.

Water-weed (Elodea canadensis). Page 40. Common in slow streams.

Sweet Flag. Calamus (AcorusCalamus). Page 22. Also found in swamps.

Spiderwort (Tradescantia virginiana). Page 298. Alluvial soil.

Great Solomon's Seal (Polygonatum commutatum). Page 156.

Also in wet meadows. Carrion-flower (Smilax herbacea). Page 377. Common and variable. Glaucous Willow (Salir- discolor). Page 378. Shrub or small tree. Silky Willow . sericea). Page 378. Common Hop (Humulus Lupulus). Page 383. This may also be found in dry soil. Pale Dock (Rumex altissimus). Page 26. In alluvial soil. Mild Water Pepper (Polygonum hydropiperoides). Page 252. Water Pepper or Common Smartweed (P. hydropiper). Page

27. Indian Chickweed. Carpet Weed (Mollugo verticillata). Page

62. Often a weed in the garden. Small-flowered Crowfoot (Ranunculus abortivus). Page 164.

Found also on damp hills. The Canada Anemone (Anemone canadensis), of the Crowfoot

Family, is similar to species of the same genus described on page

71. No petals; 5 white sepals. Flowers one inch across. Leaves, much cleft or parted, those from the root with long petioles.

On stem a primary involucre of 3 sessile leaves, each 3-cleft.

Above this the stem forks twice, and each branch bears a second involucre of 3-divided leaves below the flower. Found north of Pennsylvania. May to August. Virgin's Bower (Clematis virginiana). Page 392. Wild Monkshood (Aconitum uncinatum). Page 310. Along streams in the mountains south of Pennsylvania. Shrub Yellow-root (Zanthorhiza apiifolia). Page 451. More common southward. Moonseed (Menispermum canadense). Page 394. Wormseed Mustard (Erysimum cheiranthoides). Page 170.

Sterile or sandy soil. Cuckoo Flower (Cardamine pratensis). Page 80. Often found in boggy places. Ditch Stonecrop (Penthorum sedoidcs). Page 31. Pigmy Weed (Tillaea aquatica). Page 31. Not far from the coast. Large-flowered Syringa (Philadelphia grandiflorus). Page 394.

A shrub sometimes cultivated. Ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius). Page 395. A shrub sometimes cultivated; found wild on rocky banks of streams. Agrimony (Agrimonia parviflora). Page 176. Sandy river banks. Dog Rose (Rosa canina). Page 440. River banks in Pennsylvania. Cultivated. Wild Yellow or Red Plum (Prunus americana). Page 400.

Large shrub or small tree.

Wild Senna (Cassia marilandica). Page 177.

Vetch (Vicia caroliniana). Page 452.

Vetchling. Marsh Pea (Lathyrus palusiris). Page 317.

Trailing Wild Bean (Strophostyles helvola). Page 454. Near the coast. Strawberry Bush (Evonymus america Page 455.

(E. obovatus). Page 456.

Shrubby Bittersweet. Climbing Bittersweet. Waxwork

(Celastrus scandens). Page 389. A twining shrub. Pound in damp thickets. Jewel-weed. Touch-me-not (Impatiens pallida). Page 183.

Often along roadsides where there are springs. Spotted Touch-me-not (I. biflora). Page 185. (Cissus Ampelopsis). Page 391. South of Virginia. Frost Grape (Vitis cordifolia). Page 392. Southern. River-bank or Sweet-Scented Grape (V. vulpina). Page 392. Muscadine (V. rotundifolia). Page 392. South of Delaware. Great St. John's-wort (Hypericum Ascyron). Page 188. Sweet White Violet (Viohi pollens). Page 94. Banks of brooks. Mermaid Weed (Proserpinaca palustris). Page 35. In the mud of shallow water. Angelica Tree. Hercules' Club (Aralia spinosa). Page 408. Meadow Parsnip (Thaspium barbinode). Page 1 Great Angelica (Angelica airopurpurea). Page 108. Cornel (Cornus paniculata). Page 406. Fetter Bush (Leucothoc Catesbaei). Page 410. A shrub south of Virginia. Water Pimpernel. Brook-Weed(SamolusJloribundus). Page 116.

Near the coast. Storax (Styrax americana). Page 418.

Swamp Privet (Adelia acuminata). Page 431. Southern. Fringe-tree (Chionanthus virginica). Page 418. called also

Old Man's Beard. Seen in the North in gardens. Indian Hemp (Apocynum cannabium). Page 418. Sandy banks of streams. Hedge Bindweed (Convolvulus septum). Page 419. Wild Sweet William (Phlox maculata). Page 284. Forget-me-not (Myosotis laxa). Page 330. Banks of rills and brooks. Scorpion Grass. True Forget-me-not (M. scorpioides.) Page

330. Virginian Cowslip. Blubbblls (Mertensia virginica). Page 330.

Fog-fruit (Lippia lanceolata). Page 120.

Mad-dog Skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora). Page |

Marsh Skullcap (S. galericulata). Page 335.

False Dragon Head (Physostegia virginiana). Page 287.

Spearmint (Mentha spicata). Page 344.

Peppermint (M. piperita). Page 344.

Water Mint (M. aquatica). Page 344.

Oswego Tea. Bee Balm (Monarda didyma). Page 289.

Water Hyssop (Bacopa Monniera). Page 347.

Mudwort (Limosella aquatica, var. tenuifolia). Page 125.

Water Speedwell (Veronica Anagallis-aquatica). Page 348.

American Brookline (V. americana). Page 348.

Northern Bedstraw (Galium boreale). Page 128. Also rocky woods. Button-weed (Diodia teres). Page 129. Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis). Page 420. One-seeded Bur Cucumber (Sicyos angulatus). Page 423. Wild Balsam-apple (Echinocystis lobata). Page 424. Cardinal-flower (Lobelia cardinalis). Page 292. Great Lobelia (L. siphilitica). Page 353. Also in low, wet meadows. (L. Canbyi). Page 355. Water Lobelia (L. Dortmanna). Page 355. Sometimes an aquatic. Sunflower (Helianthus decapetalus). Page 230. Climbing Hempweed (Mikania scandens). Page 448. Near the coast. Crooked-stem Aster (Aster prenanthoides). Page 364. Autumn Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale). Page 234. Coltsfoot (Tussilago Farfara). Page 235. Along brooks and small streams. Indian Plantain (Cacalia suaveolens). Page 146.