10. Juncus Gerardi Lois. Black-Grass

Fig. 1175

J uncus Gerardi Lois. Journ. de Bot. 2: 284. 1809.

Tufted, 8-28' high, with creeping rootstocks. Basal leaves with rather loosely clasping auriculate sheaths, the long blades flat, or when dry involute; 1 or 2 cauline leaves usually present, similar to the basal; inflorescence sometimes exceeded by its lowest bract; panicle erect, strict or slightly spreading; perianth 1"-1 1/4" long, its parts oblong, obtuse, with green midrib and broad dark brown margins, straw-colored in age; stamens 6, barely exceeded by the perianth; anthers much longer than the filaments; capsule one-fourth to one-half longer than the perianth, obovoid, mucronate, dark brown, shining, 3-celled; seed dark brown, obovate, acute at base, obtuse and often depressed at the summit, marked by 12-16 conspicuous ribs, the intervening spaces cross-lined.

On salt meadows, Gulf of St. Lawrence to Florida; rare .inland to western New York and the vicinity of the Great Lakes. Occurs also on the northwest coast, and in Europe.

10 Juncus Gerardi Lois Black Grass 1175

Juncus compressus Jacq., a similar European species, but glaucous and with filaments nearly as long as the anthers, has been found in Quebec.

11. Juncus Dudleyi Wiegand. Dudley's Rush

Fig. 1176

J. Dudleyi Wiegand, Bull. Torr. Club 27: 524. 1900.

Plants 1°-4° high, pale green. Leaves basal; blades about half the length of the scapes or less, very narrowly linear but flat, frequently somewhat involute; scapes tufted, often relatively stout but wiry, striate-grooved: inflorescence 1'-2' high, or rarely slightly larger, usually rather congested, considerably exceeded by its bract, few-flowered; perianth green or pale straw-colored, 2"-2 1/2" long, its parts firm, nearly equal, lanceolate-subulate, acute, more or less spreading, scarious-margined; stamens about half as long as the perianth; anthers slightly shorter than the filaments; capsules ovoid-oval, 3/4-7/8 the length of the perianth, somewhat apiculate: seed oblong, 1/2"-1/4" long, apiculate at each end.

In damp soil and open places, Quebec and Maine to Ontario, Saskatchewan, British Columbia, Washington. Virginia, Tennessee and Mexico.

11 Juncus Dudleyi Wiegand Dudley s Rush 117611 Juncus Dudleyi Wiegand Dudley s Rush 1177

12. Juncus Tenuis Willd. Slender Rush. Yard Rush

Fig. 1177

Juncus tenuis Willd. Sp. PI. 2: 214. 1799. Juncus monostichus Bartlett, Rhodora 7: 50. 1905. (?)J. dichotomies platyphyllus Wiegand, Bull. Torr. Club 30: 448. 1903.

Tufted, 2'-30' high; basal leaves with blades 1/4"-3/4" wide, sometimes involute in drying, about half the height of the stem; the sheaths usually with broad scarious margins; inflorescence usually much exceeded by its lowest leaf, 4' high or less, the flowers rarely secund; perianth I 3/4 -2 1/2" long, its parts lanceolate, acuminate, exceeding the capsule, widely divergent, touching the capsule for about half their length; stamens 6, about half as long as the perianth; anthers shorter than the filaments; capsule oblong to obovoid, rounded at the top, imperfectly 3-celled; seed 1/5"-1/4" long, narrowly oblong to obovoid, with oblique ends, reticulated in about 16 rows, the areolae two or three times broader than long.

In dry or moist soil, especially on paths, almost throughout North America, now migrating to all parts of the world. Wire-grass. Poverty-grass.