This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Juncus oronensis Fernald, Rhodora 6: 36. 1904.
Stems tufted, erect, 2 1/20 high or less; basal leaves about half as long as the stem, the blades nearly terete, the sheaths slightly auricled; inflorescence 1'-3 1/2' long, the flowers somewhat secund on its erect or narrowly ascending branches; perianth 2"-2 1/2" long, its parts lanceolate-subulate, the outer slightly shorter than the inner; capsule narrowly oblong, trigonous, truncate or slightly emarginate, much shorter than the perianth; seed about 1/2" long, the tail one-fourth as long as the body.
In thickets, known only from Maine.
Juncus Greenei Oakes & Tuckerm. Am. J. Sci. 45: 37. 1843.
Stems erect, densely tufted, 8-2 1/30 high. Basal leaves with slender terete channeled blades one-half or rarely two-thirds the length of the stem; stem-leaves none, or a single one below the inflorescence; panicle 10"-20" high, rather compact, somewhat umbelloid, much exceeded by its lowest bract; perianth 1 1/4"-1 1/2" long, its parts stiff, lanceolate, sharply acute, with brownish red stripes and apex, the inner shorter; stamens 6, half to two-thirds as long as the perianth; anthers about as long as the filaments; style and stigmas very short; capsule one-fourth to one-half longer than the perianth, ovate-lanceolate in outline, truncate at the summit, 3-celled; seed obliquely oblong, 1/5"-1/4" long, slightly reticulated in about 20-24 rows, the areolae nearly square.
New Brunswick to New Jersey, near the coast; Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota and Ontario.
Juncus dichotomus Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 406. 1817.
Closely tufted, 1°-3° high; leaves all basal except those of the inflorescence; sheaths usually reddish, the blades terete, channeled along the upper side, about one-half the height of the stem; inflorescence paniculate, subsecund, 1 1/2"-3 3/4' high, usually exceeded by its lowest bract; perianth about 2" long, its parts subulate-lanceolate, green when young, straw-colored when old; stamens 6, about one-half as long as the perianth, the anthers shorter than the filaments; capsule slightly shorter than the perianth, oblong, obtuse, mucronate, 1-celled, the placentae intruded half way to the center; seed oblong, dark brown, obliquely apiculate, less than 1/4" long, reticulate in about 14 longitudinal rows, the smooth areolae about as long as broad.
In dry soil, Connecticut to Florida and Texas, near the coast. Introduced in Jamaica.
juncus setaceus Rostk. Monog. June. 13. pl. 1. f. 2. 1801.
Densely tufted from stout branching rootstsocks. Stems terete, spreading and recurved above, 1 1/2°-3° long; leaves all basal except those of the inflorescence, the uppermost sheath usually bearing a long terete blade similar to the stem, but channeled; the other sheaths with filiform blades less than 1/2' in length; involucral leaf appearing like a continuation of the stem, 4'-1° long; inflorescence appearing lateral, 2' long or less; perianth 1"-2 1/2" long, its parts lanceolate, acuminate, rigid, widely divergent in fruit; stamens 6; anthers usually longer than the filaments; capsule globose, shining, mucronate, 1-celled, with intruded placentae, barely dehiscent; seed subglobose, 1/4"-1/3" long, reticulate in about 12 longitudinal rows, the areolae large.