1. Smilax Herbacea L. Carrion-Flower. Jacob's Ladder

Fig. 1308

Smilax herbacea L. Sp. PI. 1030. 1753.

S. pulvcrulcnta Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 238. 1803.

Coprosmanthus hcrbaceus Kunth,Enum.5: 264. 1850.

Tubers short, thick, scarred, numerous. Stem herbaceous, glabrous, terete or obtusely angled, unarmed, commonly much branched. Petioles 4"-3 1/2' long; tendrils numerous; leaves ovate, rounded or lanceolate, acute, acuminate or cuspidate at the apex, obtuse or cordate at the base, thin, frequently downy beneath, 7-9-nerved, 1 1/2'-5' long, 1' - 3 1/2' wide, the margins entire or denticulate; peduncles 4'-9'long, usually 6-10 times as long as the petioles, flattened; umbels 15-80-flowered; pedicels 3"-8" long; flowers carrion-scented when open; stamens sometimes 5 or 7; filaments 2-3 times as long as the anthers; berries bluish black, 2-4-seeded, 3"-4" in diameter.

In woods and thickets, New Brunswick to Ontario, Manitoba, Florida, Louisiana, Nebraska and Oklahoma. April-June.

1 Smilax Herbacea L Carrion Flower Jacob s Ladder 13081 Smilax Herbacea L Carrion Flower Jacob s Ladder 1309

2. Smilax Tamnifolia Michx. Halberd-Leaved Smilax

Fig. 1309

S. tamnifolia Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. a: 238. 1803. Coprosmanthus tamnifolius Kunth, Enum. 5: 267. 1850.

Glabrous, herbaceous; stem and branches terete or obtusely angled, unarmed. Petioles 1/2'-1 1/2' the sheath tendril-bearing, very short or none; leaves coriaceous, mostly ovate-hastate, with broad obtuse lobes at the base, slightly narrowed at about the middle, acute, obtuse or acuminate at the apex, truncate or subcordate at the base, entire, green on both sides, 1 1/4'-3' long, 1/2'-2' wide, 5-7-nerved; peduncles 1-3 from the same axil, 1'-4' long, usually much longer than the leaves, often flattening in drying; umbels 10-30-flowered; pedicels 2"-3 long; segments of the staminate flowers slightly pubescent; filaments 1-2 times as long as the anthers; berries black, 2"-3" in diameter, 1-3-seeded.

In dry soil. Long Island to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Tennessee. May-July.

3. Smilax Ecirrhata (Engelm.) S. Wats. Upright Smilax

Fig. 1310

Coprosmanthus herbaccus var. ecirrhata Engelm.; Kunth, Enum. 5: 266. 1850.

.S". ecirrhatus S. Wats, in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 6, 520. 1890.

Stem herbaceous, glabrous, simple, erect, 6'-2° tall. Tendrils none, or sometimes present on the uppermost petioles; leaves often whorled at the summit of the stem, ovate, acute, obtuse, cuspidate or acuminate at the apex, rounded or cordate at the base, thin, 5-9-nerved, 2 1/2'-5 1/2' long, 1 1/4'-4' wide, sometimes larger, more or less pubescent beneath and erose-denticulate on the margins; petioles io"-i8" long; peduncles long, often pubescent; staminate flowers commonly not more than 25 in the umbels; pedicels 2"-5" long; anthers shorter than the filaments or equalling them.

In dry soil, Maryland to Minnesota, Florida and Missouri. May-June.

3 Smilax Ecirrhata Engelm S Wats Upright Smilax 1310