13. Panicum Virgatum L. Switch-Grass. Wild Red-Top

Fig. 323

Panicum virgatum L. Sp. PI. 59. 1753.

P. virgatum var. cubense Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 233. 1866.

Panicum virgatum var. obtusion Wood, Am. Bot. & Fl.

392. 1870. Panicum virgatum var. breviramosum Nash, Bull. Torr.

Club 23: 150. 1896.

Culms erect from a creeping rootstock, 3°-6° tall, glabrous. Sheaths smooth and glabrous; blades elongated, 1° or more long, 3"-6" wide, flat, long-acuminate, narrowed toward the base, glabrous, rough on the margins; panicle 6'-2o' long, the lower branches 4'-10' long, rarely shorter, spreading or ascending; spikelets ovate, acute to acuminate, 1 1/2"-2 1/4" long; first scale acuminate, about one-half as long as the spikelet, 3-5-nerved; second scale generally longer than the others, 5-7-nerved, the third similar and usually subtending a palet and staminate flower; fourth scale shining, shorter than the others.

In moist or dry soil, Maine to the Saskatchewan, south to Florida, Arizona and Costa Rica. Also in the West Indies. Thatch-grass, Wobsqua-grass, Black-bent. Aug.-Sept.

13 Panicum Virgatum L Switch Grass Wild Red Top 323

14. Panicum Anceps Michx. Beaked Or Flat-Stemmed Panic-Grass

Fig. 324

Panicum anceps Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 48. 1803. Panicum rostratum Muhl. Gram. 121. 1817.

Culms erect from a creeping scaly branched root-stock, 1 1/2°-6° tall, much branched, compressed, stout, smooth. Sheaths compressed, glabrous, or the lower ones pubescent; blades 1° long or more, 2"-5" wide, acuminate; ligule very short; panicles pyramidal, 6'-16' long; axis and ascending branches scabrous; spikelets 1 1/2"-1 3/4" long, crowded, lanceolate, acuminate, curved, longer than the scabrous pedicels; first scale less than one-half as long as the spikelet; second and third scales curved at the apex, much exceeding the fourth scale which is minutely pubescent at the apex.

Moist soil, Rhode Island to Kansas, south to Florida and Texas. July-Sept.

Panicum rhizomatum Hitchc. & Chase, differing in smaller spikelets and narrower panicle, occurs from Virginia to Florida and Texas.

14 Panicum Anceps Michx Beaked Or Flat Stemmed Pan 324

15. Panicum Agrostoides Spreng. Red-Top Panic

Fig. 325

Panicum agrostoides Spreng. Pugill. 2: 4. 1815.

Culms erect,1 1/2 -3 tall, much branched, compressed, smooth. Sheaths compressed, glabrous, or sometimes hairy at the throat; ligule very short, naked; leaves 1° long or more, 2."-4" wide, acuminate; panicles pyramidal, 4'-12' long, terminating the culm and branches; primary branches of the panicle spreading, secondary appressed or divergent; spikelets 3/4"-1" long, acute, straight, on usually sparsely hairy pedicels; first scale 3-nerved, acute; second and third scales 5-nerved, about twice as long as the first and longer than the oval fourth scale, which is sessile.

Wet ground, Maine to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas. July-Sept.

15 Panicum Agrostoides Spreng Red Top Panic 32515 Panicum Agrostoides Spreng Red Top Panic 326