This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Closely resembles the preceding species, but has weak spreading or reclining culms 2'-12' long. Leaves narrower, 1/4"-3/4" wide, involute:; spikes 2 or 3, gynaecandrous, oblong or subglobose, few or several-flowered, 2 1/2"-6" long, about \\" in diameter, brown, subtended by very small. scale-like bracts; perigynia lanceolate, 1 3/4' long, 1/2" wide, tapering at apex into the beak, strongly several-nerved; scales ovate, obtusish, brown, with hyaline margins, exceeded by the perigynia; achene filling perigynium; stigmas 2.
Brackish soil along St. Lawrence, Quebec. Very local. Also in northern Europe. Summer.
Carex Heleonastes Ehrh.; L. f. Suppl. 414. 1781.
Culms slender, stiff, erect, sharply angled, very rough, 6'-18' high, from slender, somewhat elongated root-stocks. Leaves rigid, erect, usually becoming involute, 1" or less wide, shorter than the culm; bracts very short or none; spikes 2-5, subglobose, gynaecandrous, not long-clavate at base, brown, 2"-4 1/2" long, 2"-3" wide, clustered at the summit; perigynia 5-10, appressed-ascend-ing, broadly ovate or ovate-elliptic, blunt-edged, faintly several-nerved, 1 1/2" long, more than J" wide, tapering at apex into the short sharp beak; scales ovate, brown with broad hyaline margins, nearly as long as the perigynia; achene filling perigynium; stigmas 2.
Hudson Bay to the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Local. Also in Europe and Asia. Summer.
Carex norvegica Willd.; Schk. Riedgr. 50. 1801.
Culms slender but stiff and erect, smooth, 6'-16' tall, from much elongated rootstocks, stoloniferous. Leaves \\" wide or less, shorter than the culm, glaucous; bracts very short or wanting; spikes 3-6, gynaecandrous, brown, oblong or subglobose, the upper close together, the lower separate, densely many-flowered, 3"-6" long, 1 1/2"-3" in diameter, the uppermost conspicuously clavate at base; perigynia ascending, 1 1/4"-l 1/2" long, 1" wide, thick, coriaceous, broadly obovoid, blunt-edged, abruptly narrowed to a stipitate base, brownish, finely many-nerved, abruptly tipped with a very short smoothish beak; scales broadly ovate, reddish brown, obtuse, rather shorter than the perigynia; achene filling perigynium; stigmas 2.
Near salt meadows along coast, Maine and northward. Also in Europe and Asia. Summer.
Carex pseudohelvola Kihlm., supposed to be a hybrid between this species and Carex canescens L., is reported from New Brunswick.
Care.v canescens L. Sp. PI. 974. 1753.
Carex canescens var. subloliacea Laestad. Nov. Act. Soc.
Pale green and somewhat glaucous, culms slender, erect, roughish above, 10'-2 1/2° tall. Leaves flat, 1"-2" wide, usually shorter than the culm; bracts very short or none, or the lowest occasionally bristle-form and longer than its spike; spikes 4-9, gynaecandrous, short-oblong or subglobose, sessile, densely 10-many-flowered, 1 1/2"-6" long, 1 1/2"-2 1/2" in diameter, scattered or the upper close together; perigynia oval or ovate-oval, silvery green or nearly white, faintly few-nerved, appressed-ascending, blunt-edged, from nearly 1" long to nearly \\" long, 1/2"-7/8" wide, rough or sometimes smoothish above, tipped with a minute entire or emarginate beak; scales hyaline, ovate, acute or obtuse, slightly shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 2.
In swamps and bogs, Virginia and Ohio, north and northwestward to arctic circle, southward in western mountains. Also in Europe and Asia. Whitish sedge. May-July.