This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
C. bromoides Schk.; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 258. 1805.
Bright green, culms densely caespitose, slender, erect, very rough above, 1°- 2° high. Leaves 1" wide or less, flat, soft, equalling or shorter than the culm; bracts subulate or bristle-form, the lowest commonly elongated, sometimes overtopping the spikes; spikes 3-7, narrowly oblong-cylindric, 3 1/2"-9" long, about 1 1/2' thick, erect or ascending, mostly close together, loosely 6-15-flowered, the staminate flowers basal, or terminal, or both; perigynia narrowly lanceolate, little-margined above, firm, pale, noticeably or strongly several-nerved, 2"-2 3/4" long, \" wide, corky at base, the inner face flat, the tapering rough 2-toothed beak at least one-half as long as the body; scales oblong-lanceolate, green, obtusish to acuminate, shorter than the perigynia, brownish-tinged; achenes 7/8" long or less; stigmas 2.
In bogs and swamps, Nova Scotia to Ontario and Michigan, south to Florida and Louisiana. June-Aug.
Carex exilis Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. 14: 351. 1828.
Culms densely caespitose, slender or filiform, but tough, stiff, strictly erect, smooth or roughish, 10'-2° tall, not stoloniferous. Leaves involute-filiform, usually shorter than the culm; spike usually solitary, terminal, erect, bractless, 3"-18" long, 1 1/2-3" wide, gynaecandrous, or sometimes androgynous, occasionally quite dioecious, rarely with a small auxiliary spike at its base; perigynia ovoid-ellipsoid, plano-convex, brownish, about \\" long, \" wide, margined, spongy at base, rather strongly several-nerved on the outer face, faintly few-nerved on the inner, spreading or reflexed at maturity, rounded at base, narrowed into a slender rough 2-toothed beak about one-half as long as the body; scales ovate, acute, usually shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 2.
In bogs, Labrador to southern New Jersey, mostly near the coast. Rarely inland in Vermont, New York, Ontario, Michigan and Minnesota. May-July.
Densely caespitose, culms slender, stiff, 6'-18' high, roughened on the angles above. Leaves 3/4"-1 1/4" wide, flat or slightly involute, shorter than culm; head 1/2'-1' long, narrow, of 2-6 approximate spikes, the terminal linear, staminate or gynaecandrous, the lateral subor-bicular, 2"-3" long, gynaecandrous or pistillate, with 7-15 perigynia; bracts not developed; young perigynia lanceolate, plano-convex, 1" long, few-nerved, rounded at base, tapering into a rough, minutely bidentate beak, 1/3 length of body, the walls fragile, early ruptured by maturing achone elongating; scales ovate, acute, brown, concealing perigynia; achene yellow, nearly 1" long, i" wide, tipped by persistent style; stigmas 2.
Gravelly beaches of Aroostook River, Fort Fairfield, Maine. July. A critical species.