Somewhat pubescent scapose herbs, with slender rootstocks, erect simple scapes, and few-broad petioled sheathing basal leaves, the bractless flowers umbelled at the summit of the scape in our species. Perianth-segments distinct, equal or nearly so, erect-spreading. Stamens 6, inserted at the bases of the perianth-segments; filaments filiform; anthers oblong, laterally dehiscent. Ovary 2-3-celled; ovules 2-several in each cavity; style stout or slender; stigma obscurely 2-3-lobed. Berry globose or oval. [Name in honor of De Witt Clinton, 1769-1828, American naturalist, Governor of the State of New York.]

Six species, the following of eastern North America, 2 of western North America, 2 Asiatic. Type species: Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf.

Flowers greenish-yellow, drooping, 8"-10" long; berry blue.




Flowers white, not drooping, 4"-5" long; berry black.




1. Clintonia Borealis (Ait.) Raf. Yellow Clintonia

Fig. 1281

Dracaena borealis Ait. Hort. Kew 1: 454. 1789. Clintonia borealis Raf. Atl. Journ. 120. 1832.

Scape 6-15' high, pubescent above or nearly glabrous. Leaves 2-5, usually 3, oval, oblong or obovate, thin, shorter than the scape, 1 1/2-3 1/2 wide, ciliate, short-acuminate or cuspidate; umbel 3-6-flowered; flowers drooping, greenish yellow, 8"-10" long; pedicels 3"-15" long, slender, pubescent, erect or ascending in fruit; perianth-segments obtuse or acutish; stamens about as long as the perianth; ovary 2-celled; ovules numerous, in 2 rows in each cavity, style slender, somewhat thickened above, about equalling the stamens; berry oval, blue, several-seeded, about 4" in diameter.

In moist woods and thickets, Newfoundland to Ontario and Manitoba, south to North Carolina and Wisconsin. Ascends to 4500 ft. in Virginia. A flower is occasionally borne on the scape below the umbel, and rarely a small leaf. Clinton's-lily. Heal-all. Wild lily-of-the-valley. Bear- or cow-tongue. Northern lily. Dogberry. Wild corn. May-June.

1 Clintonia Borealis Ait Raf Yellow Clintonia 1281

2. Clintonia Umbellulata (Alichx.) Torr. White Clintonia

Fig. 1282

Dracaena umbellulata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1:

202. 1803. Clintonia ciliata Raf. Journ. Phys. 89: 102.

1819. C. umbellata Torr. Fl. N. Y. 2: 301. 1843.

Scape more or less pubescent, 8'-18 high, sometimes bearing a small leaf. Leaves 2-5, oblong, oblanceolate or obo-vate, shorter than the scape or equalling it, acute or cuspidate, ciliate on the margins and sometimes also on the midvein beneath, 1 1/2-4' wide; umbel several-many-flowered; pedicels ascending or erect, slender, pubescent, at first short, becoming 1/2'-1 1/2' long in fruit; flowers white, odorous, often purplish dotted, 4"-$" long; perianth-segments obtusish; ovary 2-celled; ovules 2 in each cavity; style slender; berry globose, black, about 3" in diameter, few-seeded.

In woods, New York and New Jersey to Georgia and Tennessee. Ascends to 4000 ft. in Virginia. Dog-plum. May-June.

2 Clintonia Umbellulata Alichx Torr White Clintoni 1282