34. Cyperus Filiculmis Vahl. Slender Cyperus

Fig. 754

Cyperus filiculmis Yahl, Enum. 2: 328. 1806.

C. filiculmis macilentus Fernald, Rhodora 8: 128. 1906.

C. macilentus Bicknell, Bull. Torr. Club 35: 478. 1908.

Perennial by hard oblong corms, culm smooth, slender or almost filiform, ascending or reclined, 6-18' long, usually longer than the rough-margined leaves. Leaves 1"-2" wide, keeled, those of the involucre, or some of them, much exceeding the inflorescence; spikelets densely clustered in 1-7 globose heads, linear, acute, 4-11-flowered, subterete or compressed, 1 1/2"-6" long, 1" wide or less; rachis wingless; scales ovate, acute or obtuse, pale green, strongly 7-11-nerved, appressed; stamens 3; style 3-cleft; achene oblong or obovoid, 3-angled, obtuse, apiculate, dull gray, two-thirds as long as the scale, about twice as long as thick.

In dry fields and on hills, Maine to Ontario, Minnesota, Florida. Kansas, Texas and Mexico. June-Aug. In its northern range the spikelets are fewer-flowered than in the south.

34 Cyperus Filiculmis Vahl Slender Cyperus 75434 Cyperus Filiculmis Vahl Slender Cyperus 755

35. Cyperus Cayennensis (Lam.) Brittoru Cayenne Cyperus

Fig. 755

Kyllingia cayennensis Lam. 111. 1: 149. I791-

Mariscus flavus Vahl, Enum. 2: 374. 1806.

C. flavus Boeckl. Linnaea 26: 384. 1869-70.

C. cayennensis Britton, Bull. Dept. Agric. Jam. 5: Suppl. 1, 8. 1907.

Perennial by short rootstocks; culms trigonous, smooth, 20 high or less. Leaves flat, 2"- 3 1/2" wide, the basal ones often as long as the culm, the largest one of the involucre sometimes half as long; spikelets 2.1/2" long or less, yellowish, turgid, spicate, the spikes oblong, mostly sessile in a terminal cluster, 5"-8" long, obtuse; scales ovate, striate, the lowest persistent; style 3-cleft; achene trigonous, oblong-obovoid, about half as long as the scale.

Waste grounds. Camden, N. J.. Philadelphia, Penna., and in the southern states. Adventive from tropical America.

36. Cyperus Grayi Torr. Gray's Cyperus

Fig. 756

Cyperus Grayi Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 268. 1836.

Perennial by thick hard oblong or ovoid corms, culms tufted, ascending or reclined, stiff, smooth, very slender, 6-20' long. Leaves shorter than the culm, bright green, 1" wide or less, those of the involucre 4-8, the longer somewhat exceeding the umbel; umbel 4-10-rayed, simple, the longer rays 3-4' long; sheaths of the rays truncate or nearly so; spikelets 2 1/2"-5" long, loosely capitate, compressed, linear, rigid, spreading; scales green, ovate, obtuse or subacute, strongly 13-15-nerved, rather widely spreading when old; joints of the rachis broadly winged; stamens 3; style 3-cleft: achene oblong or oblong-obovoid, obtuse, apiculate, about two-thirds as long as the scale.

In sands of the sea shore and in pine barrens, New Hampshire to Florida. July-Sept.

36 Cyperus Grayi Torr Gray s Cyperus 75636 Cyperus Grayi Torr Gray s Cyperus 757