This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
E. alatum Torr. Sitgreaves' Rep. 168. pl. 8. 1853.
Perennial by a long thick root, stem rather stout, erect, strigose, paniculately branched, somewhat angled, l°-3° tall. Leaves mostly basal, spatulate, oblanceolate or narrowly obovate, 1-3' long, those of the stem alternate, nearly linear, short-petioled, all obtuse or subacute at the apex, glabrous or pubescent and with midrib prominent beneath, ciliate; panicle open; bracts lanceolate or subulate; involucres cymose at the ends of the branches, campanulate, 5-toothed, 1"-1 1/2" long, the segments obtuse and somewhat reflexed; calyx yellowish, 1" long, campanulate; stamens slightly exserted; achene long-pointed, 2 1/2"-3" long, reticulated, closely invested by 3 wings.
On plains, western Nebraska to Texas, west to Colorado and New Mexico. June-Sept.
Eriogonum longifolium Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc.
Perennial, strigose throughout, stem stout, erect, paniculately or corymbosely branched, leafy, finely grooved, 2°-4° tall. Leaves narrowly oblong or linear-oblong, obtuse at the apex, more or less tomentose beneath, the upper sessile, the lower narrowed into petioles with dilated and sheathing bases; bracts lanceolate or subulate; involucres turbinate-campanulate, 1 1/2"-2" long; peduncles 1' long or less; calyx oblong-campanulate, 2"-3" high, 6-parted to near the base, very villous; stamens and style-branches exserted; achene 2 1/2" long, much enlarged at the base, villous, loosely invested by the calyx-segments, not winged.
Southern Missouri to Texas. June-Nov.
Perennial, flocose-tomentose throughout; stem rather stout, erect, sparingly branched above, 1°-1 1/2° tall. Leaves oblong, or ovate-oblong, 1-3' long, the basal long-petioled, obtuse at both ends, those of the stem in whorls of 3-5 at the somewhat swollen nodes, short-petioled, narrowed at the base, the upper small and bractlike; inflorescence compoundly cymose; involucres top-shaped, 5-toothed, 2 1/2-3" long, the teeth obtusish; bracts leaf-like, spatulate; calyx yellow, 1 1/2" long, broadly campanulate, its segments obovate or orbicular; stamens and style-branches exserted.
Stony mountain-sides, Virginia and West Virginia.
Perennial, base woody, scaly, somewhat branched, stem usually spreading, branched, to-mentose, slender, 6-18' long, the branches erect, 3 or 4 times forked, light brown or reddish. Leaves mostly basal, spatulate or oblong, 1-4' long, long-petioled, the upper smaller, sessile in whorls of 3 or 4 at the somewhat swollen nodes, all obtuse or subacute, dark green and sparingly tomentose above, densely gray-tomentose beneath, their margins sometimes slightly revolute and crisped; inflorescence compoundly cymose; involucres turbinate-campanulate, 2" long, 5-toothed, the teeth rounded; bracts foliaceous, narrowly oblong or oblong-spatulate; calyx white or pink, campanulate, villous, 2 1/2"-3" long, its segments oblong or obovate; stamens and style-branches exserted; achene 2 1/2"-3" long, smooth, villous near the apex, its angles margined.
On plains, Kansas and Colorado to Texas, Arizona and Chihuahua. July-Oct.