[Schollera Schreb. Gen. 785. 1789. Not Roth. 1788.]

Herbs with creeping, ascending or floating stems, the leaves petioled, with cordate, ovate, oval or reniform blades, or grass-like. Spathes 1-flowered or several-flowered. Flowers small, white, blue or yellow. Lobes of the perianth nearly or quite equal, linear. Stamens 3, equal or unequal, inserted on the throat of the perianth. Ovary fusiform, entirely or incompletely 3-celled by the intrusion of the placentae; ovules numerous; stigma 3-lobed. Fruit an ovoid many-seeded capsule, enclosed in the withered perianth-tube. Seeds ovoid, many-ribbed. [Greek, referring to the unequal anthers of some species.]

About 10 species, 2 in tropical Africa, the others American; only the following in the United States. Type species: Heteranthera reniformis R. & P.

Leaves reniform, oval or ovate.

One of the filaments longer than the other two; flowers few or several.

Flowers white, little exserted from the sheath; leaves reniform.


H. reniformis.

Flowers blue, much exserted; leaves ovate to subreniform.


H. peduncularis.

Filaments broad, equal; spathe 1-flowered; leaves ovate to oval.


H. limosa.

Leaves linear, grass-like, floating.


H. dubia.

2 Heteranthera R P Prodr Fl Per 9 1794 1162

1. Heteranthera Reniformis R. & P. Mud Plantain

Fig. 1162

Heteranthera reniformis R. & P. Fl. Per. I: 43. 1798. Leptanthus reniformis Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 25. 1803.

Stems creeping in the mud, rooting at the nodes. Leaves long-petioled, the blades reniform, wider than long, 8"-2o" wide, rounded at the apex; petioles sheathing, 1'-4' long; spathe few-flowered; inflorescence little exserted; tube of the perianth straight or slightly curved, slender, about 4" long, its lobes shorter; flowers white or pale blue; anthers basifixed, the 2 upper oval, the other on a longer filament and linear; fruit oblong.

In mud or shallow water, Connecticut to New Jersey, Georgia, Illinois and Louisiana, and in South and Central America and the West Indies. July-Sept.

2. Heteranthera Peduncularis Benth. Blue Mud Plantain

Fig. 1163

Heteranthera peduncularis Benth. PI. Hartw. 25. 1840.

Stem stout, creeping on the mud or floating, rooting at the nodes, much branched, often 1° long or longer. Leaves long-petioled, the blades ovate to subreniform, 2 1/2' long or less, acute, obtuse or cuspidate at the apex, cordate at the base; spathe several-flowered, the inflorescence much exserted; flowers blue; perianth-tube nearly 5" long, straight or nearly so, the lobes much shorter than the tube; filaments slender, one of them longer than the other two; anthers basifixed, sagittate; fruit narrowly oblong, about 5" long.

Ponds, Nebraska(?), Missouri and Kansas to Mexico. July-Sept.

2 Heteranthera Peduncularis Benth Blue Mud Plantai 1163

3. Heteranthera Limosa (Sw.) Willd. Smaller Mud Plantain

Fig. 1164

Pontederia limosa Sw. Prodr. 57. 1788.

Heteranthera limosa Willd. Neue Schrift. Ges. Nat. Fr.

Berlin 3: 439. 1801. Leptanthus ovalis Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 25. 1803.

Stems commonly much branched from the base, 6'-15' long. Leaves numerous, oval or ovate, obtuse at the apex, rounded or slightly cordate at the base, 1' long or less; petioles 2'-5' long; spathes i-flowered, often on peduncles 1' long or more; flowers- white or blue, usually larger than those of the preceding species; filaments broad, equal or nearly so; anthers linear, often sagittate.

In mud or shallow water, Virginia to Kentucky, Missouri, Nebraska, Florida, Louisiana and throughout tropical America. July-Sept.

3 Heteranthera Limosa Sw Willd Smaller Mud Plantai 1164

4. Heteranthera Dubia (Jacq.) Macm. Water Star-Grass

Fig. 1165

Commclina dubia Jacq. Obs. Bot. 3: 9. pi. 50. 1768. Leptanthus gramineus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 25. 1803. Heteranthera graminea Vahl. Enum. 2: 45. 1806. Schollera graminea A. Gray, Man. 511. 1848. Heteranthera dubia MacM. Met. Minn. 138. 1892.

Aquatic, stem slender, forked, often rooting at the nodes, 2°-3° long. Leaves linear, flat, elongated, acut-ish, finely parallel-nerved, their sheaths thin, furnished at the top with small acute stipule-like appendages; flowers light yellow, the perianth-segments narrow; stamens nearly equal; tube of the perianth very slender, 1'-1 1/2' long; spathe 1-2-flowered; filaments dilated below; anthers linear, 2" long, sagittate; style shorter than the stamens; stigma several-lobed; capsule 1-celled with 3 parietal placentae, many-seeded.

In still water, Quebec to Oregon, south to Florida and Mexico. Also in Cuba. Occasionally occurs in a small form on muddy shores. July-Oct.

4 Heteranthera Dubia Jacq Macm Water Star Grass 1165