This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Luzula arctica Blytt, Norg. Fl. 1: 299. 1861.
Stems tufted, 2'-4' high, erect, 1- or 2-leaved. Leaves with sheaths glabrous at the mouth, their blades 1"-2" broad, seldom exceeding 1 1/2 in length, very minutely roughened on the back, at least toward the apex, flat and tapering to a usually blunt and callous tip; inflorescence an erect oblong to ovate, spike-like cluster, 1/2' in height or less, exceeding its lowest semifoliaceous bract; bractlet and perianth dark purple, the former ovate and sparingly lacerate at the hyaline apex; perianth-parts 3/4"-1" in length, narrowly oblong, more or less broadly acute at the paler apex, sometimes denticulate above; capsule subspheric, obtuse or broadly acute, exceeding the perianth; seed narrowly oblong, about 1" long.
Baffin Bay to Alaska. Also in arctic and alpine Europe and Asia.
Luzula hyperborea R. Br. Suppl. App. Parry's Voy. 183.
Stems tufted, commonly 4-8' high, erect, 1-2-leaved above the base. Leaves with sheaths sparingly ciliate at the mouth, the blades erect, 1/2"-1 1/2" wide at the base, commonly 2 1/2-7' long, usually involute in age, not roughened on the back, tapering into a very sharp point; inflorescence erect, exceeding its lowest foliose bract, consisting of a single oblong cluster 1/2 in length or less, or its one or two lower divisions on peduncles 1/2-1 1/2 long; bracts and bractlets membranous, fimbriate; perianth-parts brown, paler above, about 1 1/4" long, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, denticulate, or slightly lacerate at the apex; capsule about three-fourths as long as the perianth, ovoid, obtuse; seed rather narrowly oblong, about 3/5" long.
Arctic America, Labrador and the higher mountains of New England. Europe and Asia.
Juncus campcstris L. Sp. PI. 329. 1753-Luzula campestris DC. Fl. Fr. 3: 161. 1805. Juncoides campestre Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 722. 1891.
Stems densely tufted, erect, 4-20' high, 2-4-leaved. Leaf-blades flat, l"-3 1/2" broad, tapering at the apex to a blunt almost gland-like point, sparingly webbed when young; inflorescence umbelloid; lower bracts foliose, the lowest often exceeding the inflorescence, its several branches straight, unequal, each bearing an oblong to short-cylindric dense spike; floral bracts ovate, acuminate; bractlets similar but smaller, fimbriate at the apex; perianth 1"-1 1/2" long, brown, its parts lanceolate-ovate, acuminate; capsule obovoid or broadly oblong; seed with an oblong body about 1/2" in length, supported on a narrower white loosely cellular, strophiole-like base about one-half as long.
In woodlands, almost throughout the United States and British America. Also in Europe and Asia. Sweeps. Chimney-sweeps. Black-caps. Good-Friday. Black-head- or Cuckoo-grass. One of our earliest flowering plants, consisting of several slightly differing races.
Juncoides bulbdsum (Wood) Small, usually distinguishable from this plant by bearing bulblets at the base of the stems, ranges from the District of Columbia to Georgia, Arkansas and Texas, and may be specifically distinct.