Tall trees with horizontal or ascending branches and small narrowly linear deciduous leaves, without sheaths, in fascicles on short lateral scaly bud-like branchlets. Aments short, lateral, monoecious, the staminate from leafless buds; the ovule-bearing buds commonly leafy at the base, and the aments red. Anther-sacs 2-celled, the sacs transversely or obliquely dehiscent. Pollen-grains simple. Cones ovoid or cylindric, small, erect, their scales thin, spirally arranged, obtuse, persistent. Ovules 2 on the base of each scale, ripening into 2 reflexed somewhat winged seeds. [Name ancient, probably Celtic]

About 9 species, natives of the north temperate and subarctic zones. Besides the following, 2 others occur in western North America. Type species: Larix Larix (L.) Karst., of Europe, much planted for ornament, and reported as established in Connecticut.

1. Larix Laricina (Du Roi) Koch. American Larch. Tamarack

Fig. 142

Pinus laricina Du Roi, Obs. Bot. 49. 1771. Pinus pendula Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 369. 1789. Larix americana Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 203. 1803. Larix laricina Koch, Dendrol. 2: Part 2, 263. 1873.

A slender tree, attaining a maximum height of about 100° and a trunk diameter of 30, the branches spreading, the bark close or at length slightly scaly. Leaves pale green, numerous in the fascicles, 5"-12" long, about \" wide, deciduous in late autumn; fascicles borne on short lateral branchlets about 2" long; cones short-peduncled at the ends of similar branch-lets, ovoid, obtuse, 6"-8" long, composed of about 12 suborbicular thin scales, their margins entire or slightly lacerate.

In swampy woods and about margins of lakes, Newfoundland to the Northwest Territory, south to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Indiana and Minnesota. Wood hard, strong, very durable, resinous, light brown; weight per cubic ft. 39 lbs. Called also Hackmatack, Hack-mak, Black or Red Larch, Juniper Cypress. March-April.

1 Larix Laricina Du Roi Koch American Larch Tamara 142