This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Salix cordata Muhl: Neue Schrift. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin
A shrub, 5°-12° high, or a tree up to 50 tall, the twigs puberulent or glabrous; young leaves pubescent. Mature leaves oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, green on both sides or paler beneath, acuminate at the apex, narrowed, obtuse or subcordate at the base, serrulate with glandular teeth, green in drying; stipules oblique, serrulate, usually large and persistent; petioles 4"-9" long; aments leafy at the base, expanding before the leaves, the staminate about 1' long, the pistillate 1 1/2-2 1/2 in fruit; bracts silky, persistent; stamens 2; filaments glabrous; style short; capsules narrowly ovoid, acute, glabrous, 2"-4" long, short-pedicelled. In wet soil, New Brunswick to British Columbia, Virginia, Missouri, Colorado and California. Hybridizes with S. sericea and other species. April-May.
Salix Mackenziana Barrett, a small tree, with young leaves glabrous or merely puberulent, cuneate, finely serrate, and pedicels 2-4 times as long as the bracts, occurs from Manitoba westward.
It ranges from western Nebraska to Assiniboia.
Salix adenophylla Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 146. 1839. Salix syrticoia Fernald, Rhodora 9: 225. 1907-
A straggling shrub, 3°-8° high, the twigs, petioles, stipules and leaves densely silky-tomentose, the silky hairs falling away from the leaves when old. Leaves ovate, acute or short-acuminate, or the lower obtuse at the apex, cordate or rounded at the base, finely serrulate with gland-tipped teeth, 1-4' long, 8"-2' wide; petioles stout, 1 1/2"-3" long, dilated at the base; stipules ovate-cordate, obtuse, serrulate, persistent; aments dense, expanding with the leaves, the staminate about 1' long, the pistillate 1 1/2'- 4' long in fruit; bracts villous, persistent; stamens 2; filaments glabrous; style filiform, longer than the stigmas; capsule nearly sessile or ovoid-conic, acute, 1 1/2"-2 1/2" long.
On lake and river shores. Labrador to James Bay, Ontario, Pennsylvania and Michigan. Hybridizes with S. cordata. April-May.
Salix purpurea L. Sp. PI. 1017. 1753.
A slender shrub or small tree, with purplish flexible twigs, maximum height about 120; branches often trailing; bark smooth and very bitter. Leaves oblanceolate or spatulate, acute, serrulate, narrowed at the base, short-petioled, glabrous, green above, paler and somewhat glaucous beneath, 1 1/2'-3' long, 21/2"- 4" wide, some of them commonly subopposite; stipules minute; petioles 1"-2" long, not glandular; aments appearing before the leaves, dense, leafy at the base, the staminate about 1' long, the pistillate 1-2' long, sessile or nearly so; stamens 2; filaments and sometimes also the anthers united, pubescent; bracts purple, persistent; stigmas very nearly sessile; capsules ovoid-conic, obtuse, tomentose, 2 1/2" long.
Sparingly escaped from cultivation in the Atlantic States, Ontario and Ohio. Native of Europe. Also called bitter-, rose or whipcord-willow. April-May.