[Smilacina Desf. Ann. Mus. Paris 9: 51. 1807.] Rootstocks slender, or short and thick. Stem simple, scaly below, leafy above, the leaves alternate, short-petioled or sessile ovate, lanceolate or oblong. Inflorescence a terminal raceme or panicle. Flowers white or greenish white, small. Perianth of 6 separate spreading equal segments. Stamens 6, inserted at the bases of the perianth-segments; filaments filiform or slightly flattened; anthers ovate, introrse. Ovajy 3-celled, sessile, sub-globose; ovules 2 in each cavity; style short or slender, columnar; stigma 3-grooved or 3-lobed. Berry globular. Seeds usually 1 or 2, subglobose. [Named in honor of Wagner.] About 25 species, natives of North America, Central America and Asia. Besides the following, one or two others occur in the western United States. Type species: Convallaria stellata L.

Flowers numerous, panicled.


V. racemosa.

Flowers few-several, racemose.

Plant 8'-20' high; leaves numerous.


V. stellata.

Plant 2'-15' high; leaves 2-4.


V. trifolia.

3 Vagnera Adans Fam Pi 2 496 1763 1283

1. Vagnera Racemosa (L.) Morong. Wild Or False Spikenard

Fig. 1283

Convallaria racemosa L. Sp. PI. 315. 1753.

Smilacina racemosa Desf. Ann. Mus. Paris 9: 51. 1807.

V. racemosa Morong, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 114. 1894.

Rootstock rather thick, fleshy. Stem somewhat angled, slender or stout, erect or ascending, leafy, finely pubescent above, or nearly glabrous, sometimes zigzag, 1°-3° high. Leaves oblong-lanceolate or oval, sessile or the lower short-petioled, 3'-6' long, 1-3' wide, acuminate, finely pubescent beneath and sometimes also above, their margins minutely ciliate; panicle densely many-flowered, 1'-4' long, peduncled; pedicels shorter than the flowers, or equalling them; flowers about 2" broad; perianth-segments oblong, equalling the ovary; berry red, aromatic, speckled with purple, 2"-3" in diameter.

In moist woods and thickets, Nova Scotia to British Columbia, south to Georgia, Missouri and Arizona. Ascends to 2500 ft. in Virginia. Job's-tears. Goldenseal. Small or Zigzag Solomon's-seal. May-July. Vagnera amplexicaulis (Nutt.) Greene, of western North America, distinguished from this by its clasping leaves and longer style, may occur in western Nebraska.

1 Vagnera Racemosa L Morong Wild Or False Spikenar 1284

2. Vagnera Stellata (L.) Morong. Star-Flowered Solomon's Seal

Fig. 1284

Convallaria stellata L. Sp. PI. 316. 1753. Smilacina stellata Desf. Ann. Mus. Paris 9: 52.

1807. Vagnera stellata Morong, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 114.


Rootstock stout, fleshy. Stem rather stout, erect, glabrous, 8-20' tall, straight or somewhat zigzag, leafy. Leaves oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, sessile and somewhat clasping, minutely pubescent beneath, 2'-5' long, 1/2-1 1/2 wide, acute, acuminate, or blunt at the apex, flat or somewhat concave; raceme sessile or short-peduncled, 1'-2' long, several-flowered; pedicels l"-4" long, usually shorter than the flowers; perianth-segments oblong, obtuse, longer than the stamens; style about as long as the ovary; berry green with 6 black stripes or black, 3"-5" in diameter.

In moist soil, Newfoundland to British Columbia, south to Virginia, Kentucky, Kansas and California. Also in northern Europe. False Solomon's-seal. May-June.

3. Vagnera Trifolia (L.) Morong. Three-Leaved Solomon's Seal

Fig. 1285

Convallaria trifolia L. Sp. PI. 316. 1753. Smilacina trifolia Desf. Ann. Mus. Paris 9: 52.

1807. Vagnera trifolia Morong, Mem. Torr. Club 5:

114. 1894.

Glabrous, rootstock slender. Stem slender, erect, 2'-15' high, 2-4-leaved (usually 3-leaved); leaves oval, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, sessile, sheathing, 2'-5' long, 1/2-2' wide, acute or acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base; raceme few-flowered, peduncled, l'-2' long; perianth-segments oblong or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, finally somewhat reflexed, longer than the stamens; style about as long as the ovary; berry dark red, 2 1/2"-3" in diameter.

In bogs and wet woods, Newfoundland to British Columbia, south to Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Michigan. Also in northern Asia. May-June.

3 Vagnera Trifolia L Morong Three Leaved Solomon s 1285