This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
[Lophiocarpus Miquel, Fl. Arch. Ind. 1: Part 2, 50. 1870. Not Turcz. 1843.] Perennial, bog or aquatic herbs with basal long-petioled sagittate or cordate leaves, simple erect scapes bearing flowers in several verticils or 2-3 at the summit, the lower perfect, the upper staminate. Sepals 3, distinct, persistent, erect after flowering and enclosing or enwrapping the fruit. Petals white, deciduous. Receptacle strongly convex. Stamens 9-15, hypo-gynous, inserted at the base of the receptacle. Filaments flattened. Pistils numerous; ovule solitary, erect, anatropous; style elongated, oblique, persistent. Achenes winged or crested. Embryo horseshoe-shaped. [Greek, signifying crested fruit.]
Leaves with large basal lobes fully as long as the terminal one.
Leaves with small basal lobes shorter than the terminal lobe.
Leaves imperfect or obsolete, the phyllodia thick or partially flattened; plants of salt or brackish water.
Phyllodia terete or nearly so, prominently nodose-septate.
Phyllodia flat, more or less spatulate, not prominently nodose.
Surv. 212. 1859. Lophiocarpus calycinus Micheli, in DC. Monogr. Phan. 3:
61. 1881. Lophotocarpus calycinus (Engelm.) J. G. Smith, Mem.
Torrey Club 5: 25. 1894. Lophotocarpus calycinus niaximus Robinson in A. Gray,
Man. Ed. 7, 84. 1908.
Plants mostly emersed; leaves 1/2°-2° tall, the petioles stout, the blades sagittate, hastate or lunate, 2 1/2-12' long, the basal lobes usually longer than the broad terminal lobe, usually caudate-acuminate; scapes shorter than the leaves, the inflorescence usually simple, with 2-7 whorls; sepals suborbicular to orbicular-reniform, becoming 4 1/2"-7 1/2" long; fruiting pedicels very thick, usually elongate, mostly 1 1/4"-2" long; fruit-heads 5i"-8" in diameter; achenes broadly cuneate, 1"-1 1/4" long, the beak stout, the dorsal wing thin.
Lophotocarpus depauperatus J. G. Smith, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 11: 148. 1890.
Plants mostly emersed; leaves 1/2°-1° tall, the petioles relatively slender, the blades oblong, elliptic, sagittate or hastate, 3/4'- 1 1/2' long, including the basal lobes which are usually more or less spreading; scapes about one-half as long as the leaves, mostly with 1 or 2 whorls; sepals suborbicular, becoming 3"-3 1/2" long; fruit-bearing pedicels rather stout, 1/3'-1 1/4' long; fruit-heads 3V-4" in diameter; achenes cuneate, fully 1" long, or rarely shorter, the beak slender, the dorsal wing thin.
On margins of ponds, Wisconsin to Illinois, Missouri and Oklahoma. June-Sept.
Sagittaria calycina spongiosa Engelm. in A. Gray,
Man. Ed. 5, 493. 1867. Lophotocarpus spongiosus (Engelm.) J. G. Smith,
Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 11: 148. 1899.
Plants submerged; leaves 1/3°- 2/3° tall, the petioles stout and spongy, conspicuously nodose-septate, the blades spatulate, oblong, elliptic, sagittate or hastate, 1/3'-1 1/4' long, the basal lobes, when present, more or less falcate; scapes about one-half as long as the leaves or less, the inflorescence simple, with one or two whorls; sepals broadly ovate or orbicular-ovate, becoming 5"-6" long; fruiting pedicels very stout, 1/3'-3/4' long, or rarely longer; fruit-heads 3 1/2"-5" in diameter; achenes cuneate, i"-i 1/4" long, the beak short, at the top of the achene-body, the dorsal wing thin.
On margins of brackish ponds and tide-water marshes, New Brunswick to Virginia. July-Aug.
Lophotocarpus spathulatus J. G. Smith, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 11: 149. 1899.
Plants aquatic; leaves less than 4' tall, the petioles stout, not conspicuously septate, the blades linear or spatulate dilations at the top of the petioles, or wanting; scape shorter than the leaves, stout but weak, the inflorescence with but one whorl; sepals ovate to orbicular-ovate, becoming 1 1/2" long; fruiting pedicels stout, about 5" long or less; fruit-heads 2V-3" in diameter; achens cuneate, 3/4"-1" long, the beak much below the top of the achene-body, the narrow dorsal wing thin.
On sandy beaches above salt-water, New-buryport, Massachusetts. July-Sept.