Erect forked herbs, perennial by rootstocks. Stem leafy above, scale-bearing below, the leaves alternate, sessile or perfoliate. Flowers large, solitary at the ends of the branches or rarely 2 together, peduncled, drooping. Perianth bell-shaped or narrower; segments distinct, deciduous, sometimes bearing a nectary at the base. Stamens 6, free, or adnate to the very bases of the perianth-segments; filaments filiform; anthers linear, the sacs longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary 3-lobed, 3-celled, short-stalked or sessile; styles united to about the middle, stigmatic along the inner side above; ovules several in each cell. Capsule ovoid or obovoid, 3-angled or 3-winged, loculicidally dehiscent. Seeds globose, 1-3 in each cavity. [Name Latin, from uvula, a palate, in allusion to the hanging flowers.]

Five or six species, natives of eastern North America. Type species: Uvularia perfoliata L.

Capsule obtusely 3-angled, truncate or rounded; leaves perfoliate.

Glabrous, glaucous; perianth-segments papillose within.


U. perfoliata.

Leaves pubescent beneath; perianth-segments smooth or nearly so.


U. grandiflora.

Capsule acutely 3-angled or 3-winged, acute at each end; leaves sessile. (Oakesiella Small.)

Leaves thin, slightly rough-margined, narrowed at both ends.


U. sessilifolia.

Leaves firm, manifestly rough-margined, sometimes subcordate.


U. puberula.

1. Uvularia Perfoliata L. Perfoliate Bellwort. Wild Oat

Fig. 1289

Uvularia perfoliata L. Sp. PI. 304. 1753.

Glabrous and glaucous or pale green. Stems 6'-2o' high, slender, forked above the middle, usually with 1-3 leaves below the fork; leaves oval, oblong or ovate-lanceolate, acute at the apex, rounded or sometimes narrowed at the base, smooth-margined, 2'~5' long when mature, small at flowering time; flowers io"-i6" long, pale yellow; peduncle becoming 1/2-1' long in fruit; perianth-segments granular-papillose within, sometimes but slightly so; stamens shorter than the styles or equalling them, the connective sharp-tipped; capsule obovoid, truncate, thicker than long, 4 '-5" long, obtusely 3-angled, with concave sides and grooved angles, its lobes dehiscent above.

In moist woods and thickets, Quebec and Ontario to Florida and Mississippi. Ascends to 3500 ft. in Virginia. Flowers fragrant. Mealy bellwort. Straw-bell. Mohawk-weed. May-June.

1 Uvularia Perfoliata L Perfoliate Bellwort Wild O 1289

2. Uvularia Grandifldra J. E. Smith. Large-Flowered Bellwort

Fig. 1290

Uvularia grandifiora J. E. Smith, Ex. Bot. 1: 99. pl. 51. 1804-5.

Stems rather stouter than that of the preceding species, naked or with 1 or 2 leaves below the fork. Leaves perfoliate, oblong, oval or ovate, pubescent beneath, at least when young, glabrous above, becoming 2'-5' long; flowers lemon-yellow, 1'- 1 1/2' long; perianth-segment smooth on both sides or very slightly granular within; stamens exceeding the styles, the connective blunt; capsule obtusely 3-angled, truncate, 4'-5" long, the lobes dehiscent above.

In rich woods, Quebec to Ontario, Minnesota, Georgia, Tennessee and Kansas. Aoril-June.

2 Uvularia Grandifldra J E Smith Large Flowered Be 12902 Uvularia Grandifldra J E Smith Large Flowered Be 1291

3. Uvularia Sessilifolia L. Sessile-Leaved Bellwort

Fig. 1291

Uvularia sessilifolia L. Sp. PI. 305. 1753. Oakesia sessilifolia S. Wats. Troc. Am. Acad. 14: 269. 1879.

Glabrous, stem slender, naked or bearing 1 or 2 leaves below the fork. Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 1 1/2'-3' long when mature, thin, sessile, acute at each end, roughish-margined, pale or glaucous beneath; flowers greenish yellow, 8"-15" long; perianth-segments smooth; styles exceeding stamens; anthers blunt; peduncle 1/2'-1' long in fruit; capsule sharply 3-angled, narrowed at both ends, short-stipitate, about 1' long, 6"-8" thick.

In moist woods and thickets, New Brunswick and Ontario to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Arkansas. Wild oat. Straw-lilies. May-June.

4. Uvularia Puberula Michx. Mountain Bellwort

Fig. 1292

Uvularia puberula Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 199. 1803. Oakc„ia puberula S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 14: 269. 1879.

Stem rather stout, sparingly rough-pubescent with short hairs, at least on the forks. Leaves oblong, oval or ovate; rough-margired, firm and 1 1/2"-3' long when mature, sessile, acute at the apex, obtuse, subcordate or sometimes narrowed at the base, shining, green on both sides, the midvein sometimes pubescent; flowers light yellow, about 1' long; styles about equalling the stamens; capsule sharply 3-angled, acute at both ends, sessile or very nearly so on the short peduncle, 10"-12" long.

In mountain woods, Virginia and West Virginia to South Carolina. Ascends to 5000 ft. in Virgini:. May-June.

Uvularia nitida (Britton) Mackenzie, of the pine-barrens of New Jersey, differs in having the styles exceeding the stamens and a smaller capsule; it may be specifically distinct.

4 Uvularia Puberula Michx Mountain Bellwort 1292